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THE VATICAN IN WORLD POLITICS - cont.


CHAPTER 20
CONCLUSION

Thus we have come to the end of our survey dealing with the rôle played by the Vatican in the modern world. We have examined almost half a century of its influence on all major nations, the part it played before and during the two world wars which have shaken mankind within the brief period of three decades, and its contribution to the rise and establishment of Fascism. No one will lightly dismiss the responsibility which the Vatican must bear for the impasse in which the nations have come to find themselves.

Enormous forces extraneous to religion in general and to Catholicism in particular have been the main promoters of the gigantic economic, social and political earthquakes which have shaken the first half of the twentieth century; yet the part played by the Vatican in most, if not in all, of them will make it a difficult task to acquit the Catholic Church of the heavy censure that history will pass upon it.

The survey just made, although incomplete, has made it abundantly clear that the Catholic Church has steered the wheel of contemporary history often and decisively.

Far from diminishing, the influence of the Catholic Church is expanding with increasing rapidity. It is moulding the course of local, national, and international events in such wise as to facilitate the attainment of its main goal—dominion throughout the world. If this main goal were limited to the purely religious sphere, it would still be objectionable on moral and practical grounds. But unfortunately the Catholic Church's aspirations knows no such limit. We have already seen that the Church does not remain within its own domain; its fundamental claim of being the only bearer of truth of necessity forces it to trespass into ethical, social, cultural, economic and political spheres. Its assertion that it cannot be bound by any law enacted by men when in the exercise of its mission makes it act as it deems most suitable for its purpose, using whatever will help oppose, fight, or destroy ideologies or systems in conflict with Catholic tenets.

While other religions, or even Christian denominations, either through the loss of spiritual aggressiveness or owing to effective measures devised by the State, have abated their zeal, the Catholic Church continues to assert its claim with undiminished vigor and an inexhaustible passion for conquest. It will stop at nothing to achieve its goal. To expect the Catholic Church to forego meddling in social and political affairs is to expect such a profound change in its inner structure as would alter Catholicism entirely. As in past centuries, so now and in the future the Catholic Church will continue relentlessly to employ its cunning, energy, and skill in hampering, so far as lies in its power, the progressive forces of contemporary society.

For the spirit that moves the Catholic Church makes it a ruthless and persistent enemy of our century and of all that individuals and nations are laboring and sweating to attain. History has shown that whenever Catholicism transforms its religious formulae into social and political ones it invariably endeavors to keep the status quo, or, indeed, to set back the clock, allying itself with all the forces whose object is similar to its own—i.e. the maintenance of a state of affairs which is no longer consonant with the needs of our changing times.

The creation of new powerful Catholic parties on the ruins of the various Authoritarian regimes; the Church's alliance with certain strata in Europe, in the Americas, in Asia, and, indeed, everywhere; its successful siding with the most powerful nation, the United States of America; its stirring up of the troubled waters of world politics against Socialism and countries that have adopted it as their political system; its global crusade against Communism and Soviet Russia; its thundering against an ideology which, no matter all the crimes committed in its name, yet is stirring the hearts of the masses all over the planet—all this proves that the Catholic Church is intruding in the affairs of bodies politic with the same energy, boldness, cunning and determination as it did in the period between the two world wars.

The Catholic Church is not easily deterred by defeats, setbacks, or dismal failures such as would break other, less majestic, institutions. Like the phoenix, it rises after each defeat stronger and more alive than before. Governments may come and go, but the Catholic Church continues to stand more challenging than ever. We have just seen how, having lost its mightiest secular ally in totalitarian Europe, it has reconstituted its forces. Within a few years it has become the spiritual associate of the United States of America in her crusade against Communist ideology and its embodiment, the U.S.S.R. The Church's conquests on the American Continents have more than compensated it for what it has lost in the Old World, and the alliances it is making there are giving it a far wider influence upon the affairs of the globe than it ever had when supported by the ancient dynasties of the dictators of modern Europe.

Notwithstanding the tremendous increase of its enemies, the Catholic Church continues undeterred in its mission. Indeed, its resolution to expand has become more intransigent than ever; its priests, its bishops, and many of its laymen are striving with the zeal of crusaders to expand its dominion in all corners of the Earth; no section or stratum of modern society escapes its attention, no nation or country is without its Hierarchy or some of its members.

Unlike America and Soviet Russia with their political dependencies, the Catholic Church has neither standing armies nor atom bombs. It needs neither because it is the possessor of a weapon which during twenty centuries has served it not only to survive, but to win and conquer. Its strength lies in a passionate belief in its mission to convert and ultimately to rule all the nations of the world. This spiritual strength is buttressed by an organization that is unsurpassed and that has made the Catholic Church a power of the first magnitude.

Its diplomats are ushered into almost every Foreign Office in the world; its press and its charitable, social, and political institutions stand side by side with the most up-to-date newspapers, sports and cultural clubs and social welfare centres in America and Europe; its Catholic Parties are competing with powerful political movements in the major countries of the European continent; its ruler, the Pope, although a religious leader, has over fifty accredited ambassadors at his residence, and his words, obeyed by an army of 400 million, are considered by the leaders of all parties and governments and may have more far-reaching consequences than the utterances of heads of States, the resolutions passed at International Congresses, or the motions propounded by World Councils set up to ensure global peace.

Being the relentless institution that it is, the Catholic Church will not rest. As we have pointed out, to attain its goals it will continue the patient process of machination and counter-machination. It will employ artfulness, daring, diplomacy, religion, intrigue —and all the armory of great nations bent on expanding their dominion abroad.

It is fully to be expected that instead of helping to avert a third world catastrophe, the Catholic Church, by continuing to align itself with unenlightened forces, will greatly contribute to the widening of the gap already separating two great portions of the world. But while so doing, the Catholic Church should keep in mind that it is endangering not only the lives of countless millions, but also its own existence. A third world war, unlike the wars of the recent past, would spell irremediable destruction not only of entire peoples, but also of ancient institutions, among which the Catholic Church would certainly be one of the main sufferers.

Millions of thinking people are today striving to build a world in which war is outlawed. New and living forces are on the march. Because the Catholic Church has seen small countries grow into mighty empires and then tumble, because it has beheld countless rulers rise and fall, ideologies come and go, let it not entertain vain illusions that it will also see the passing of the progressive forces which are now sweeping the globe.

The atomic bombs which in a few seconds wiped Hiroshima and Nagasaki from the face of the earth and brought Japan to her knees should be a warning to all those forces dealing with the future of mankind, that the methods of uncompromising principles of past ages are for ever out-of-date. Unless new horizons are opened, new methods devised, and a new spirit encouraged, economic systems, social doctrines, and political régimes, as well as religious institutions, will inevitably bring upon themselves and all mankind total and final annihilation. The Catholic Church would be no exception, and, like all other world-wide institutions, it should take heed of the warning and, by keeping step with the spirit of the twentieth century, try to follow a new road.


INDEX.

Abyssinian War, 18, 79, 121, 122, 123, 124, 128, 246, 304, 311, 340, 389, 401, 408
Accion Popular, 91, 93
Act of Separation, 295, 296
Action Francaise, 303, 304, 323
Action Liberale, 295
Ad Beatissimi, 68
Africa, 54
Agrarian Party, 259
Albania, 126, 190, 196
Albigensians, 37
Alderman, Sidney, 104
Alexander III, Patriarch, 353, 354
Alexander, King, 238
Alexis, Mgr., 352
Alfieri, 313
Alfonso XII, 87
Alviñana, Dr., 94
Alsace-Lorraine, political and racial hatreds stirred up by Jesuits, 139, 140 ; included in Papal Federation, 233 ; return helps improve relations between Church and State, 296 ; used by Vatican to bring pressure on French Government, 299 - 300, 301

America, 369, 405, 413
"America First", 384, 385
American Catholic Press, 368, 369
A.M.G.O.T., 133
Anacletus, St., 22
Anglo-Soviet Pact, 342, 343
Anschluss, urged on Heimwehr, 237 ; opposed by Hierarchy, 241 ; demanded by Austrian Nazis, 244 ;
forestalled by Mussolini, 245 ; urged by Vatican, 247, 248 ; consummated, 250
Ante-Pavelich, 128
Anti-Comintern Pact, 340, 411
Anti-Communist Legions, 207, 290, 341, 349, 350

Anti-Semitism, in Italy, 126 ; in Germany, 144 ; Hitler's pogroms, 179 ; of Austrian Catholic Party, 226, 227 ; receives official recognition in Austria, 239 ; in Slovakia, 260, 266 - 267 ; in Fascist France, 320
"Anti-Soviet Bloc", 345, 350
Armistice, 149, 153, 296
Arras, Bishop of, 328
Associations cultuelles, 296
Association for the Propagation of the Faith, 51
Association of Catholic Trade Unionists, 372, 376
Association of Motion Picture Producers, 373
Auch, Archbishop of, 324
Augustinians, 56
Austria, and the Vatican, 224 - 250 ; Concordat, 226; Vienna and Socialists, 227 - 228, 229 - 230, 234, 237, 243 ; Parliament dismissed, 239 ; Dollfuss murdered, 244 ; treaty with Germany, 246 ; final struggle over Anschluss, 247 - 250 ; and passim
Azaña, 90

Baden, 176
Badoglio, Marshal, 131, 132, 212, 216
Bagarre, 304
Bamberg, Archbishop of, 175
Baudoin, 310, 314, 315, 316
Baudrillart, Cardinal, 322
Bavaria, 140, 146, 147, 151, 158, 176, 190, 233
Bavarian bishops, call for co- operation with Nazi Government, 182, 183 ; protest restriction on Catholics, 183 - 186 ; congratulate Hitler on escape from death, 196 ; declare themselves enemies of Communism, 205 - 206
Bavarian People's Party, 154
Beck, Colonel, 277
Beck, Ludwig, 216
Belgian Fascist Party, 283 - 284
Belgium, and Peter's Pence, 24 ;
—and the Vatican, 279 - 291 ; capitulation of, 287 ; utterances of Hierarchy, 289, 290, 291 ;
and passim

Benedict XV, and League of the Sacred Heart, 60 ; on world unrest, 68 - 70 ; progressive outlook of, 78 ; sends Pacelli to Germany to contact Erzberger, 148 ; death of, 111 Benedictines, 233, 298, 370
Benes, President, 255, 267 - 268
Benjamin, Metropolitan, 354
Benjamin, Patriarch, 354
Bergey, Abbé, 322
Berning, Bishop Wilhelm, 184
Bertram, Cardinal, 177, 183, 184
Bethleem, Abbé, 45, 46
Bethlen, Count, 233
Bethmann-Hollweg, 145
Bettinger, Cardinal, 146
Bible, 45
Billot, Cardinal Louis, 303
Bismarck, 138, 139, 141, 142
"Black Narcissus, The", 375
"Blood Purge", 178
Blue Division, 104, 349
Blum, Leon, 303
Boncour, Paul, 317 - 318
Borgongini-Duca, Archbishop, 127, 312, 313
Boxheim document, 163
Brandeburg, Captain, 162
Braun, Father Leopold, 352
Brazil, 57, 402, 407, 408
Brest-Litovsk, Treaty of, 149
Brieuc, Bishop of, 324
Brigham, 131
Brophy, Father Edward, 385
Bruening, Dr., chosen by Reichswehr, 154 ; appointed Chancellor, 159 ; Emergency Decree, 160 ; dissolves Reichstag, 160 ; agrees to share government with Hitler, 162 ; arranges meeting of Hitler and Von Hindenburg, 163 ; armament program of, 164 ; tries to restore monarchy, 165 ; dismissed by Hindenburg, 167 ; urges Catholics to vote for Hitler, 173 ; tries to preserve Catholic Party, 174
Bucharest, Treaty of, 149
Buelow, Prince, 145

Cabrini, Mother Frances, 394, 395
Cagoulards, Les, 198, 304, 307
Calles, President, 403
Callistratus, Catholicos, 353
Cambrai, Archbishop of, 322
Camelots du Roy, 303
"Camera Secreta", 31
Canada, 24, 51
Canon Law, 22, 25, 41, 43, 117, 140, 290, 383 - 384
Canovas, 85
Canterbury, Archbishop of, 338
Carabinieri, 23
Cardinals, function of, 32 ; number of, 32, 33 ; power of, 34 ; proscribers of books, 44 ; additional, appointed in U.S., 366 Castile, 57

Catholic Action, purpose and activities of, 61, 62 ; members beaten up by Fascists, 115, 116 ; violence against, denounced by Pope, 118 ; exhorted by Pius XII, 128 ; German Catholics influenced by, 158 ; activities of German Catholics confined to, 175 ; addressed by Pius XII, 391

Catholic Centre Party, political instrument of Vatican, 141, 142 ; hostility to Russia and Communism, 144 - 145 ; under monarchy, 146, 147 ; under Weimar Republic, 150 - 157 ; strides to the right, 157 ; in hands of Vatican, 158, 165 ; liquidation planned, 168 ; dissolved, 174

Catholic Church, fundamental mission of, 14, 54, 417 ; religious organization, 14, 20 ; not confined to religious sphere, 14 ; on divorce, 15, 16, 49 ; on procreation, 16, 17, 49 ; government of, 28 - 41 ; unchanging spirit of, 42, 417 ; resemblance to dictatorships, 43 ; power to boycott books, 45 ; books proscribed by, 46, 47 ; claim to only truth, 48 ; on astronomy, 49 ; foreign mission of, 52, 53, 54 ; religious orders, 55 - 64 ; allied with landlords and industrialists, 75 ; target of Reds, 76 ; losses due to Socialism, 77, 78 ;

Catholic Church (Contd.)
—and Civil War in Spain, 84 - 106 ; stranglehold on Spain, 84 - 87 ; wealth of, 87 ; numerical losses, 88 ;

—and Italian Fascism, 107 - 137 ;

—and Hitler, 138 - 170 ;

—and World War II, 171 - 223 ;

—and Austria, 224 - 250 ; identified with Austrian dynasty, 224, 225, 228 ; abandoned by Austrian workers, 234 ; repudiated by Viennese, 241 ;

—and Czechoslovakia, 251 - 268 ; numerical losses in, 254 ; primary cause of disintegration of Czech Republic, 261 ;

—and Poland, 269 - 278 ; approves persecution of Orthodox clergy, 274 ; policy of, in Poland, 277 ;

—and Belgium, 279 - 291 ; influence on Belgian life, 281 - 282 ; supports Fascism, 283 ; post-war protests of, 289 - 290 ;

—and France, 292 - 331 ; anathematizes Paris Commune, 294 ; attacks Third Republic, 294, 295 ; strength in France between two World Wars, 296 ; organization in France, 297, 298 ; alliance with reactionary sections of French society, 301 - 302 ; is granted unheard-of powers by Pétain, 320 ;

—and Russia, 331 - 361 ; animosity against Orthodox Church, 331, 332, 333 ; aim between 1930 and 1940, 338, 339, 340, 341 ; counteracted by encouragement of Orthodox Church, 350 - 352 ; views with dismay growth of Orthodox Church, 354 - 355 ; incites defeated countries against Russia, 360 ;

—and U. S. A., 362 - 398 ; growth in U. S., 364 - 365 ; organizations, 366, 368, 369, 370, 371 - 372 ; war on Communism in unions, 372 ; aims to control motion picture industry, 372 - 376 ; objective in U. S., 362, 380, 381 - 383 ; supports Father Coughlin, 385 ; conducts slander campaign against Republican Spain, 387 ; partner of U. S. in war on Communism, 392 - 393 ; lines of campaign in U. S., 395 ; attempt to assail Constitution, 396 - 397 ;
—and Latin America, 399 - 410 ; opposed by Mexico, 403 ; starts authoritarian movement in Mexico, 404 - 405 ; plan for "Latin bloc", 407 - 408 ; for "Catholic bloc", 409 - 410 ; policy in Asia, 410 ;
—and Japan, 410 - 413 ;
—and China, 413 - 415 ;
zeal of, 418 ; relentlessness of, 418, 419

Catholic Communist Party, 136
Catholic Conference on Industrial Problems, 371
Catholic Federation Association, 61

Catholic Hierarchy, double role of, 28 ; founded on cardinals, 34 ; power to grant indulgences, 41 ; power to boycott books, 45 ; militant attitude of, in Spain, 88 ; supports Franco, 104 ; supports Mussolini, 112, 129 ; praises Mussolini, 118 ; instructed to support Nazi regime, 175 ; silent on "Blood Purge," 178 ; supports Saar Plebiscite, 178 ; ordered to stop criticizing Hitler, 200 ; organizes campaign to incite nations against Russia, 204 - 206 ; ordered to support Dollfuss, 242 ; strikes bargain with Hitler, 246 ; works to "eliminate" Orthodox clergy, 274 ; in Holland, 279 - 280 ; in Belgium, 289 - 290 ; ordered to threaten secession of Alsace Lorraine, 301 ; ordered to side with Petain, 321 ; lower clergy kept from Resistance movement by, 323 ; propagandize against Russia, 323 - 324 ;

Federation of Catholic States envisaged by, 326, 327 ; measures against, in France, 328 ; Russians to be converted only through German, 348 ; make-up in U. S., 366 ; power in N.C.W.C., 367 ; trained in social problems, 371 ; pressure on Hollywood, 375, 376 ; pressure on U. S. press, 377 ; Father Coughlin approved by, 383 - 384, 385 ; American intervention in Mexico asked by, 387, 403 ; pressures brought in arms-to-Spain issue, 387 ; attempts to assail the Constitution of the United States, 396 - 397

Catholic Inter-racial Council, 370
Catholic Labor Alliance, 372
Catholic Missions, 368
Catholic parties, in Spain, 91, 92 ; in Italy, 11, 115, 134, 136 ; in Germany, 139, 142, 143, 145, 146, 147, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 168, 169 ; in Austria, 226 - 227, 232, 235, 239, 244 ; in Czechoslovakia, 259 ; in Belgium, 282, 285 ; in Mexico, 404
Catholic Press Association, 369
Catholic Principles of Politics, 382
Catholic seminaries, 50, 52, 53, 366
Catholic Times, 339
Catholic Tribunal, 375
Catholic War Veterans, 376
Catholic Women's League, 61
Catholic Workers Group, 372
Catholic World, The, 369
Catholic Young Men's Association, 181
Catholic Youth Organization, 94, 288, 319
Catholicism, numerical strength of, 14, 21 ; annual converts to, 53 ; conflict with Nazism, 181, 221 ; strength in Austria, 224, 225, 226 ; persecuted by Orthodox Church, 332 ; growth in U. S., 364 - 366, 367 ; war on Communism in trade unions, 372 ; why strong in U. S., 377 - 378 ; American characteristics of, 378 ; in Latin America, 401 - 403 ; State religion in Brazil, 408 ; in Japan, 411 - 412
Catholicity in the United States, 382
Catholics, blind obedience of, to Church, 15, 16, 17 ; books proscribed to, 43 - 49 ; in Norway, 199 ; join Evangelical Church, 241 ; numerical superiority in Belgium, 280 ; protest admission of Russia to League of Nations, 339 ; minority in U. S., 364 ; increase of, in U. S., 367 ; zeal of, 376

Catroux, General, 329
Ceretti, Cardinal, 255
Chancellery of Briefs, 30
Chaplin, Charles, 375
Chiang Kai-shek, 414
Chicherin, 335, 337
China, and the Vatican, 413 - 415 ; and passim
Christian Democratic Party, 134
Christian Democratic Union Party, 216
"Christian Front," 384, 386
Christian Social Party, 227
Churchill, Winston, 133, 315, 316, 317
Chust, Archbishop of, 354
Ciano, Count, 127, 312, 313
Cincentians, 395
Cincinnati, Archbishop of, 405
Cistercians, 298
Clarizio, Mgr., 130
College of Cardinals, 22, 29, 31, 32, 63
Colombia, President of, 408
Comintern, 342, 343
Commonweal, The, 62, 369
Commune, the Paris, 294
Communism, condemned by Catholic Church, 49 ; argument of, used to obtain generous terms for Italy, 132 ; crusade against, in Mexico, 174 ; campaign against, launched by Vatican, 275 ; mortal enmity of Vatican to, 349, 360, 417 ; annihilation of, fundamental policy of Fascist bloc, 340 ; Catholic committees to watch progress of, 371 - 372 ; and passim
Communists, strikes organized by, 130 ; votes polled by, in Germany, 78, 165 ; oppose Anschluss, 249 ; strength of, in Czechoslovakia, 257 ; suppressed in Belgium, 287 - 288 ; attacked by French Fascists, 302 ; persecuted by Petain, 318 ; attack French collaborationists, 330 ; ousted from Hollywood, 375 ; in Manchuria, 411 ; and passim

Concordat, defined, 25 ; recognition of Catholic Action to be part of every, 61 ; with Spain, 84, 85 ; with Mussolini, 117, 118 ; with Hitler, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176 - 177, 244 ; breaches of, protested, 80, 182, 187 ; with Austria, 226, 240 ; with Napoleon, 293 ; promised by Hitler, 327

Conference of German Bishops and Archbishops, 201, 202, 203
Congregation of the Resurrection of Our Lord Jesus Christ, 395
Congregation of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, 30
Congregations, 29, 30, 34, 35 - 39, 44, 51, 53, 63
Congress of the Russian Church, 353
Constitution, of United States of America, 396 - 397
Constitution, Russian, 346, 348
Constitution, Spanish, 85
Corporate State, in Spain, 100 - 101 ; Seipel's ideas on, 232 ; established in Austria, 240 ; advocated in Quadragesimo Anno, 306 ; French Fascist organizations demand, 307 ; Petain desires to build, 320 ; French Hierarchy and reactionaries plan to set up, 325 ; established in France, 327 ; advocated by N.C.W.C., 371
Cortes, 90
Commons, House of, 236
Coughlin, Father, preaches Authoritarianism, 383 - 386 ; against Roosevelt, 388 ; prepares ground for Catholic Fascist Authoritarian movement, 404 ; center of Catholic Isolationism, 406
Council for Affairs of the Russian Orthodox Church, 351, 352
Courier Français du Temoignage Chrétien, 323
Christophorus, Patriarch, 353, 354
Croatia, 128, 233, 238 - 239, 300
Croix de Feu, 304, 307
Cuesta, Ramon, 407
Curia, 29, 30, 37
Cuval, 300
Czar, 331, 332
Czech National Movement, 259
Czech Separatist Movement, 258
Czechoslovakia, and Vatican, 251 - 268 ; apostacy in, 253 ; agreement with Vatican, 254 ; refuses to break alliance with Russia, 257 ; expels Papal Nuncio, 258 ; dismembered, 265 ; pact with Russia, 267 ; and passim
Czechoslovak People's Party, 259
Czernin, Count, 148

Daladier, 309, 317
Damasus, Pope, 84
Danubian Confederation, 233
Danzig, 192
Daudet, 303
De Gaulle, 315, 316, 317, 328, 330
Degrelle, 283, 284, 285, 290
Del Val, Merry, 48, 115
De Portes, Mme. Helen, 315
De Rivera, 89, 94, 306
De Valera, 104, 339
Divine Word, The, 370
Dollfuss, Dr., visited by Gil Robles, 92 ; heads Catholic Party, 237 ; strengthens Heimwehr, 238 ; implicated in Croation plot, 239 ; dissolves Parliament, 239 ; sets up Corporate State, 240 ; opposes Anschluss, 241 ; destroys Socialist Party, 243 ; mortally wounded, 244 ; failure of policy, 248
Dominicans, 56, 298
Doriot, 328
Duarte Costa, Mgr. C., 407
Duffy, Monsignor, 406

Eastern Churches, 36, 52
East India, 57
Ecole Sainte Geneviève, 298
Ehrenfried, Bishop Matthias, 183, 184
"Emergency Decree," 160 Encyclicals, of Leo XIII, 66, 67, 382 ; of Benedict XV, 68 - 70 ; of Pius XI, 70 - 73, 118, 238, 240 ; of Pius IX, 141
Erzberger, Pacelli sent to establish relations with, 148 ; Armistice signed by, 149 ; assassinated, 151
Evangelical Church, 240, 241
Evrainoff, Bishop, 210

Falange Expanola, 94, 105, 407
Falk, 139
Falk Laws, 140, 141
Fascist Great Council, 131
Faulhaber, Cardinal Michael, approves Kaiser's conduct of World War I, 147 ; supports Hitler, 175 ; protests breaches of Concordat, 182 ; protests infringements on rights of Catholic Church, 186 ; bargains with Hitler, 189 - 190 ; supports Pacelli, 191 ; gives thanks for Hitler's escape from death, 196, 219 ; silent on invasion of Norway, 200 ; remarks on Nazi regime after defeat, 22
Federzoni, 130
Fey, Major, 243, 244, 245
Fides Agency, 54
Flemish Anti-Bolshevik Legion, 290
Flemish Catholic Nationalists, 286
Flynn, E. J., 220, 356, 389
"Forever Amber," 375

France, and Peter's Pence, 24 ; non-intervention in Spain by, 96, 387 ; declares war on Germany, 194 ; demands disarmament of Heimwehr, 236 ; demands constitutional government in Austria, 237 ; breaks Czech alliance, 262 ; and the Vatican, 292 - 331 ; strength of Catholic Church in, 296, 298 - 299 ; organization of Catholic Church in, 297, 298 ; bargains with Vatican about Alsace-Lorraine, 299 - 300 ; Fascist parties in, 302 - 305 ; conspiracy to set up Fascist dictatorship, 305 - 306, 307 - 318 ; invaded by Germany, 310 ; by Italy, 314 ; occupied, 318

Franciscans, 56, 187, 298, 385
Franco, General Francisco, right hand of Gil Robles, 93 ; victor in Civil War, 96 ; tribute to Catholic Church, 99 ; plans for capture of Gibraltar, 102 ; cooperates with Hitler, 102, 103, 104 ; plots with Petain, 198, 308, 309, 311 ; plan for Federation of Catholic States known to, 327 ; anti-Bolshevik legion of, 349
Franz Joseph, Emperor, 225
French Revolution, 225, 293, 320
Front Populaire, 303

Galdoes, 89
Gales, Father Louis, 376
Galileo, 48, 49
Gallagher, Bishop, 385
Gambetta, 301
Gasparri, Cardinal, 112, 120, 255, 333, 388
General Assembly of the Cardinals and Archbishops of France, 323
General Assembly of the Orthodox Church, 354, 358
Genoa, Archbishop of, 335
Genoa Conference, 335, 337
Gerlier, Archbishop, 322, 324, 325
German National Party, 151, 152, 154, 156, 157
Germany, Socialist gains in, 78 ; aid to Franco, 96 ; and the Vatican, 138 - 170 ; Rhineland incorporated, 178 - 179 ; see Hitler
Germany, Crown Prince of, 165
Gianini, 135
Gilroy, Cardinal, 33
Giraud, 306
Goebbels, 197
Goerdeler, Dr., 216
Goering, 162, 222, 277, 307
Goma y Tomas, Cardinal, 93, 99
Gonzales, Archbishop, 105
Gounod, Primate, 322
Grandi, Count, 130, 131
Greece, 26, 128
Greek Catholic Church, 253
Gregory XV, 51

Great Britain, non-intervention in Spain by, 96 ; Catholic press in, 123 ; contacted by Vatican, 129 ; policy in Italy, 130 ; urges France not to oppose Hitler, 179 ; declares war on Germany, 194 ;
rejects Pope's proposals to fight Russia, 209 ; demands disarmament of Heimwehr, 236 ; demands constitutional government in Austria, 237 ; Mussolini declares war on, 314 ; Vatican's praises of Petain protested, 319 ; signs pact with Russia, 342 ; recognizes Lublin Government, 359
Greiser, Arthur, 223
Groeber, Archbishop, 184, 185, 221
Groupe Collaboration, 322
Croupes Mobiles, 304
Guidi, 313

Hacha, President, 264
Hapsburgs, interference in election of Popes, 225 ; close alliance with Catholic Church, 224, 225, 230 ; part in monarchist plot, 238 ; in Bohemia, 251, 252, 253
Haskell, Col., 336
Hayes, Cardinal, 372, 385
Hays, Will, 374
Hecker, Father, 378
Heimwehr, prominent Socialists slain by, 234 ; used by Seipel to smash Reds, 235 ; disarmament demanded by England and France, 236 ; military rising suppressed, 237 ; implicated in Croatian plot, 239 ; armed by Dollfuss, 240, 241 ; pressures Dollfuss to persecute Socialists, 242 ; incorporated with military organization of Government, 245
Henderson, Arthur, 236
Henlein, 259, 261, 262, 263
Henri IV, 301
Henry VIII, 39
Herrera, Angel, 92
Herriot, Edouard, 303, 316
Hertling, 146
High Court Commission of Inquiry, 315, 317
Hilgers, 47
Hinsley, Cardinal, 319

Hitler, why supported by Vatican, 82 ; helps Franco, 96 ; agrees to share government with Bruening, 162 ; elected Chancellor, 170 ; seeks support of Center Party, 171 ; signs Concordat, 174 ; invades Poland, 194 ; invades Norway, 190 ; plans to invade West, 199 ; invades Russia, 204 ; tries for negotiated peace, 211, 212, 213 ; attempts on life of, 214 ; plot to assassinate, 215, 216 - 219 ; negotiates for Anschluss, 249 ; takes over Austria, 250 ; uses Henlein to disrupt Czechoslovakia, 264 ; asked by Pope to restrain Mussolini, 312 ; by Petain and Weygand, 313 ; plan for Federation of Catholic States known to, 326, 327 ; and passim

Hlinka Guards, 266
Hlinka, Mgr., 259, 261, 263
Hlinka Slovak People's Party, 266
Hlond, Cardinal, 191, 194, 349
Hoare, Sir Samuel, 104, 210
Hoffman, General, 148
Hohenlohe, Chancellor, 145
Holland, invasion protested by Pope, 127 ; capitulation, 200 ; anti-Bolshevik contingent sent to Russia, 349
Holland, Queen of, 127, 200
Holy Alliance, 293
Holy Office, 37 - 39, 42, 45
Holy Synod, 332, 351, 353, 357, 358
Hoover American Relief Administration, 336
Hueber, Dr., 237
Hugenberg, 166, 167, 169
Hungarian Soviet Republic, 229
Hungary, 158, 233, 238, 239, 264
Hurley, Timothy, 43, 45
Huss, John, 251, 255, 256

Ibanez, 89 Index, 37, 42, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48, 50 Indulgences, 40, 41 Innitzer, Cardinal, supports Pacelli for Pope, 191 ; negotiates for Anschluss, 247, 248, 249 ;
welcomes Nazis, 250
Innocent II, 40
Inquisition, 37, 42
Inscrutabili, 66
Institute of Oriental Studies, 338
International Catholic Press Exhibition, 180
International Congress of the Catholic Press, 182
Inter-racial Review, 369, 371
Ireland, 300
Isolationism, 405, 406
Italian Christian Left Party, 136

Italy, and Lateran Treaty, 22 ; Socialists after First World War, 78 ; aid to Franco, 96 ; the Vatican and Fascism, 107 - 137 ; Fascist dictatorship established in, 114 ; enters Second World War, 127 ; surrenders, 212 ; declares war on England and France, 314 ; and passim
Izvestia, 357, 358

Jackson, Justice, 222
Jacobini, 141
Japan, and the Vatican, 410 - 413, 415 ; and passim
Jeanneney, Jules, 316, 317
Jesuit colleges, 57, 298, 370, 382, 386

Jesuits, vows, zeal, discipline of, 56 - 59 ; leaders of clericalism in Spain, 88 ; wealth of, 88, 90, 91, 92 ; in Germany, 139 ; in Austria, 225 ; in France, 298 ; return to France, 300 ; attack on American institutions by, 383 ; in U. S., 365 ; and passim
Jeunesse Patriote, 304
Joan of Arc, 300
Jordansky, 336
Josephite Fathers, 370
Journal American, 377
Julius II, 32
Junkers, 151, 158, 166

Kaas, Dr. Ludwig, mouthpiece of Catholic Centre Party, 157, 158, 159 ; intrigues with Vatican, 164, 166, 167, 168, 169 ; negotiates with Hitler, 171 ; votes for Hitler, 172 ; gets instructions from Pope, 175
Kaiser, 142, 145, 146, 148, 149, 153, 166
Kaspar, Archbishop, 255
Kerensky, 333
Knights of Columbus, 24, 61, 376
Kuhn, Maj., 217
Ku-Klux-Klan, 404

La Croix, 322, 329
Lade, Dr. Serafin, 351
Land Reform Law, 254
Langeron, Robert, 317
Lateran Treaty, 22, 115, 116, 118, 120, 127
Latin America, and the Vatican, 399 - 410 ; tour of Cardinal Pacelli in, 400 ; instrument of Vatican's global policy, 401 ; Catholicism in, 401 - 403 ; authoritarian movement in, 404 - 405 ;
plan for Spanish-Latin bloc, 407 - 408
Laurel, Jose, 104
Laval, plots with Petain, 198 ; fraternizes with Nazis, 307 ; schemes to establish fascist France, 308, 309, 310 ; holds secret conferences with Papal representative, 311 ; asks Pope to restrain Mussolini, 313 ; agrees to Petain's resignation, 314 ; persuades deputies to agree to surrender, 317 ; Catholics urged not to be hostile to, 325 ; executed, 328

League d'Action Francaise, 304
League of Nations, 18, 72, 121, 122, 124, 178, 338 - 339, 401
League of the Sacred Heart, 60
Lebrun, President, 314
Ledochovski, 336
Legion of Decency, 367, 373, 374, 375
Lenin, 234, 271, 272
Leo X, 31
Leo XIII, encyclicals of, 17 - 18, 65 - 68, 382 ; Osservatore Romano bought by, 23 ; on concordats, 25 ; condemns Socialism, 67 - 68, 75 ; mediator between Germany and Spain, 141 ; on Communism, 323 ;
proclamations of, basic in N.C.W.C. teachings, 371 ; condemns American separation of Church and State, 382
Leopold, King, 127, 200, 286, 287, 289, 314
Lequerica, 198
Lerroux, 92
Liberalism, condemned by Leo XIII, 67, 68 ; condemned by Pius XI, 72 ; supplanted by Socialism, 74 ; in Spain, 85, 86, 87 ; fought by Taafe Government, 225 ; gains ground in Austria, 226 ; fought in Belgium, 282 ; and passim
Lieber, 146
"Lightning Courts," 240
Linus, St., 22
Linz, Bishop of, 250
Lord, Rev. Daniel A., 373
Loyola, Ignatius, 56
Ludendorff, General, 147, 148
Lueger, Karl, 226, 227
Lutte Scolaire, La, 281

MacDonald, Ramsay, 236
MacGowan, R. A., 62
Madagascar, 53
Maglione, Cardinal, 213
Mandel, George, 316, 317
"Maquis," 323
March on Rome, 111, 112, 236
Marquet, 317
Marx, Dr., 151, 154
Matteotti, 114
Maurras, 303
McClafferty, Mgr., 374
Mein Kampf, 257
Menne, B., 146
Messenger of the Sacred Heart, The, 60, 368
Metropolitan of Leningrad, 353, 354
Metropolitan of Lvov, 354
Mexico, against dominion of Catholic Church, 403 ; alliance of Catholic Church with oil concern, 386, 404 ; Civil War in, 389, 403 ; Catholic authoritarian movement in, 404 - 405 ; and passim
Mikado, 412
Mindszenty, 392
Minzoni, Don, 113
Mistrangelo, Cardinal, 113
Mit Brennender Sorge, 187
Mix, Father John, 395
"Monsieur Verdoux," 375
Montaña, Father, 87
Monteiro, General Goes, 407
Mother Superior of the Convent of Espirito Santo, 403
Motion picture industry, 372 - 376
Mueller, Hermann, 153, 159, 216
Mundelein, Cardinal, 24, 187
Murillo, Bravo, 89
Murray, Senator James, 396

Mussolini, praised by Pope Pius XI, 79 ; negotiates with Union Militar Española, 95 ; helps Franco, 96, 387 ; contacted by Vatican on behalf of Franco, 97 ; alliance with Pius XI, 107 ; leader of Partito Fascista, 110 ; signs concordat, 117 ; invades Abyssinia, 121, 122 ; attacks Greece, 128 ; arrested, 131 ; disappears, 132 ; body hidden by monks, 135 ; plans "stab in back" to France, 199 ; contemplates intervention in Yugoslavia, 239 ; incites Dollfuss to crush Socialists, 242 ;
forestalls Anschluss, 245 ; makes demands on France, 311 ; approached by Pope in interests of French plotters, 312, 313 ; declares war on England and France, 314 ; American cardinals decorated by, 385, 386 ; praised by Myron Taylor, 389 ; helped by Latin-American Republics at League of Nations, 401 ; and passim

Namur, Bishop of, 290
Napoleon, 39, 293, 299, 307
National Catholic Congress on Social Action, 371
National Catholic Welfare Conference, 62, 367 - 368, 371, 373, 377, 382, 386, 388
N.C.W.C. Press Department, 368
National Catholic Youth Council, 61
National Christian Party, 136
National Council of Catholic Men, 366, 376
National Council of Catholic Women, 61, 366, 376
National Council of the Free Churches, 338
National Federation of Catholic College Students, 366
National Union, 260
Nationalist Party, 166
Nazi Party, 157, 165, 172
Nazi-Soviet Pact, 127
Nazis, treat Catholics roughly, 173 ; attack Catholic schools, 178 ; engage in "Blood Purge," 178 ;
interference with Catholic schools protested, 186 ; joined by Styrian Heimwehr, 237 ; and passim
Negroes, 369, 370 - 371, 397
New Man Association, 61
Newman Club Federation, 366
New York Times,388
Nicholas II, 333
"Nigger Tax," 160
Noble Guard, 23
Non Abbiamo Bisogno, 118
North Africa, 314, 316, 317
North African Bishops, 329
Norway, 199
Nuremberg trial, 192, 197, 222

Oblates of Mary Immaculate, 370
Obregon, President Alvaro, 403
O'Connell, Cardinal, 385
Oecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, 353, 354
Oertzen, Maj. Ulrich, 216
Okulicki, General, 345
Olbritch, General Friedrich, 216, 219
Oratorians, 298
Orlemansky, Father, 355 - 356
Orsenigo, Mgr., 204

Orthodox Church, political hostility to, 144 ; Vatican's dream to absorb, 158, 192 ; stumbling block to agreement of Vatican and Soviet Russia, 346 ; in Greece, Near East, Africa, 353 ; delegates to Russian Orthodox Assembly, 354 ; growth feared by U. S., Gt. Britain, and Vatican, 355 - 356 ;
hostility to Vatican, 356 - 357 ; attacks status of Pope, 358
Osservatore Romano, 23, 45, 198 - 199, 208, 213, 319, 339, 359
Ottaviani, Mgr., 210
Otto, 233
Our Sunday Visitor,368

Pabst, Maj. Waldemar, 236
Pacelli, Cardinal, on Spain, 98 ; consulted by Catholic Centre Party, 148 ; strengthens militancy of German episcopate, 151 ; and Catholic Centre Party, 154, 155, 156, 157 ; throws weight with Hitler, 164 ; appointed Secretary of State, 165 ; supports Bruening plan for Monarchy, 166 ; on dissolution of Catholic Centre Party, 175 ; protests suppression of Catholic press, 182 ; asks Hitler to help Petain, 308 - 309 ; consults with Roosevelt on Spain, 388 ; elected Pope, 126, 191

Paderewski, 271
Pan-Germans, 158
Papal States, 23, 24, 31, 108, 116, 142
Pappalardo, Mgr., 130
Partito Fascista, 110
Partito Popolare, 110
Patriarch of Moscow and of all the Russias, 351, 353, 354, 357, 358
Paulist Press, The, 369
Pearl Harbor, 104, 367, 369, 370, 383, 406, 412
Peiro, Father, 88
Pertinax, 131
Petain, Marshal, prepares for fascism in France, 198, 307, 308 ; contacts Vatican and Hitler, 198, 308 ; promotes Catholic officers to key positions, 309 ; appointed Vice- Premier, 310 ; asks Pope to restrain Mussolini, 313 ; resigns, 314 - 315 ; and Churchill, 315 ; full powers delegated to, 317 ; signs Armistice, 318 ; praised by Osservatore Romano, 319 ; grants unheard-of powers to Catholic Church, 320 ; loyalty of Hierarchy to, 323, 324 ; sentenced, 328 ; privileges granted Church maintained, 329
Peter, St., 22
Peter's Pence, 23 - 24
Philippines, 104, 402
Pilsudski, 272
Piou, Jacques, 295
Piquet, Mgr., 325
Pius IV, 37, 43
Pius VII, 23, 37
Pius IX, 31, 32, 141, 311, 323
Pius X, 40, 225

Pius XI, encyclical of 1926, 54 ; inaugural encyclical, 70, 71 ; influence on policy of Catholic Church, 73 ; character, 78 ; open supporter of Franco, 97 ; alliance with Mussolini, 107 ; forbids alliance with Socialists, 114 ; praises Mussolini, 118, 119, 120, 352 ; Abyssinian War and, 121, 122 ; death of, 126, 190 - 191 ; signs Concordat with Hitler, 174 ; and Dollfuss, 244 ; blesses French fascist plot, 308 ; on Communism, 324 ; indicts Russia for religious persecutions, 337 ; views on modern movies, 374 ;
secret negotiations with Roosevelt, 388

Pius XII, creates 32 new cardinals, 33 ; congratulatory message to Franco, 99 ; courts Fascist Italy, 126 ; asks Italy to remain neutral, 127 ; receives Churchill, 133 ; informed of plan to invade Poland, 192, 277 ; accepts it, 193 ; silent on invasion of Poland, 194 ; denounces Russia on war with Finland, 195 ; suffers nervous breakdown, 196; urges Hitler to attack Russia, 197 ; silent on invasion of Norway, 199 ; silent on attack on France, 201, 318 ; campaigns to unite Allies and Germany vs. Russia, 209 ; tries for negotiated peace, 211 ; condemns Nazism after it is destroyed, 222 ; rejects overtures of Stalin, 341 - 342, 343 - 344, 345, 349 ; creates American cardinals, 366 ; relations with Roosevelt, 388 - 390, 412 - 413 ; with Truman, 390 - 391

Pizzardo, Mgr., 335
Poland, plan to invade revealed to Pius XII, 192 ; betrayed by Pope, 193 ; invaded, 194 ; fall of, 195 ; liquidation of Czechoslovakia asked by, 264 ; and the Vatican, 269 - 278 ; Russian territory annexed, 271, 273 ; religious persecution in, 274 - 275 ; policy of hatred towards Russia, 276 ; virtual ally of Germany, 276 - 278 ; "fifth partition" of, 278, 341
Polish Corridor, 192
Polish Government in Exile, 277 - 278, 359
Polish Government in Lublin, 359
Polish Home Army, 345

Pope, task of, 14 ; power of word, 15, 419 ; area of influence, 18 ; pivot of Catholic Church, 29 ; dependence on Secretary of State, 30 ; head of Propaganda Fide, 36 ; supreme giver of indulgences, 41 ; and passim
Popolari, 113, 114
Popular Front in Spain, 93, 95 ; in France, 188, 303, 340
Portugal, 38, 57, 158, 326, 349
Posen, Archbishop of, 139, 140, 272
Pravda, 357
Priests' Summer Schools of Social Action, 371
Propaganda fide, 36, 42, 43, 51, 52, 53
"Pro-Russia," 344, 348

Protestantism, persecuted in Spain, 38 ; in Austria, 240 ; conversions to, 240, 241, 242, 246 ; in Belgium, 280 ; Catholic Church welcomed as ally by influential sections of, 394 ; softening to idea of permanent unofficial representative to the Vatican, 396 ; and passim
Prouvost, 310
Prussia, 138, 139, 142, 148, 167, 196, 241
Pulpit Laws, 139
Puzyna, Cardinal, 225

Quadragesimo Anno, 78, 79, 101, 238, 240, 265, 306, 320
Quigley, S. J. and Martin, 373

Rackl, Bishop, 184
Rampolla, Cardinal, 225
Ratti, Cardinal, 111, 272
Redemptorists, 370
Reichstag, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 152, 157, 159, 160, 163, 171, 172, 173
Reichswehr, 154
Republican Defence Corps, 230, 234, 240
Rerum Ecclesiae, 54
Rerum Novarum, 17
Resistance movement, 322, 323, 330
Rexism (Catholic Fascist Party), 284 - 285, 288, 290, 349
Reynaud, Premier, 310, 314, 315, 316, 317
Rhineland, 140, 148, 157, 178, 179, 276, 340
Ribbentrop, 195, 198, 199, 204, 210, 213, 263, 312
Rintelen, Anton, 244
Robles, Gil, 92, 93, 94, 95, 97
Roche, Monsignor, 52
Roehm, 162, 164
Roman question, 109, 112

Roosevelt, President, and Italian plotters, 130, 132 ; sends Myron Taylor to Vatican, 209, 210 ; attempts rapprochement between Vatican and Russia, 210, 220 ; rejects Vatican's offer of negotiated peace, 211 ; letter of King Leopold to, 287 ; urges Vatican to come to terms with Stalin, 343, 344, 355 - 356 ; deterioration in relations of Pope and Stalin due to death of, 359 ; yields to Catholic pressure on arms to Spain, 387, 400 ; consults with Pacelli, 388 ; gets Vatican support for "Good Neighbor" policy, 400 ; protests Vatican's friendship with Japan, 412

Ropp, Bishop, 334
Rothschild, 24
Rumania, 233

Russia, admission to League of Nations opposed by Catholic Church, 18 ; Socialist revolution in, 76 ; help to Spain by, 96, 387 ; denounced by Pope, 180 ; occupies half of Poland, 195, 341 ; Nazi-Soviet Pact, 195 ; Vatican urges attack on, 197 ; alliance with Czechoslovakia maintained, 262 ; Petain's plans to disrupt alliance with, 308 ;
—and the Vatican, 331 - 361 ; animosity of Vatican against, 331, 332, 333; Vatican's negotiations with, 334 - 337 ;
pact with Great Britain, 342 ; freedom of worship in, 346 - 348 ; encourages Orthodox Church, 350 - 351 ; losses in Second World War, 360

Russian Orthodox Church, animosity of Catholic Church against, 331, 332, 333 ; number of churches in 1917, 342 ; revival of, 346 - 348 ; in Poland, 349 ; as counter-balance to Catholic Church, 350 - 351 ; Congress of, 353 ; growth viewed with dismay by Vatican, 354 - 355 ; growth cause of increased hostility, 360, 361 ; in territory seized by Poland, 273
Russian Revolution, 294
Russo-Turkish War, 145
Ruthenia, 264, Church of, 354
Ryan, Mgr., J. A., 382

Saar, 178
Saint Cyr, 298
St. Xavier University, 370
Salazar, 209, 226, 327
Salvemini, Professor, 123, 128
Savoy, House of, 133, 134, 286
Schenk, Col. Claus, 216
Schleicher, 153, 160
Schlozer, 141
Schober, 236
School Bill, 152, 155
School Laws, 151
Schuster, Cardinal, 123, 191
Schutle, Cardinal, 184
Secretariat of Briefs to Princes, 30
Secretariat of Latin Letters, 30
Secretarius Domesticus, 31
Secretary of Ordinary Affairs, 30
Secretary of State, 29, 30, 31, 38, 64
Secularism, 49, 66, 74, 142, 224, 231, 298
Segura, Cardinal, 91
Seipel, Ignaz, leader of Catholic Party, 230 ; social and foreign policy of, 231 - 232 ; endorsed by Vatican, 232 - 233 ; harshness protested, 234 ; employs Heimwehr to overthrow democracy, 235 ; resigns chairmanship of Catholic Party, 236 ; death of, 237 ; influence on Dollfuss, 239 ; failure of policy of, 248 ; Papal Confederations envisaged by, 326
Seldes, George, 24, 63, 235, 377
Senior Catholic Daughters of America, 376 Separatist movement in Czechoslovakia, 258
Seredi, Dr. Justinian, 233
Sergei, Patriarch, 352, 357, 358
Sergius, Metropolitan, 352
Seton, Mother Elizabeth Ann, 394, 395
Seyss-Inquart, 81, 247, 263
Sforza, Count, 333
Shirer, 198
Sikorsky, General, 336
Silesia, 272
Sinarquism, 404, 407
Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament, 370
Sisters of Notre Dame, 395
Sixtus V, 31
Skouras, Spyros, 375
Slattery, William, 395

Slovak Nationalist Party, 259
Slovak Populist Party, 259
Slovakia, 259, 260, 263, 265, 267
Smith, Alfred E., 379
Social Democratic Party, 231
Social Democrats, joined by Catholic members of Centre Party, 155 ; Bruening and, 160, 161, 166, 167 ; support Hitler, 172 ; fought by Dollfuss, 241 ; and passim
Social Justice, 384, 406
Socialism, hostility of Catholic Church to, 16 ; condemned by Leo XIII, 67, 68, 69 ; condemned by Pius XI, 72 ; spread of, 75, 76 ; in Italy, 109, 110, 129 ; suppressed in Belgium, 287 - 288 ;
hatred for, mainspring of Vatican's machinations, 360 ; and passim
Socialists, gains after First World War, 76, 78 ; strikes organized by, 130 ; in Austria, 227, 228, 229, 230 ; in Vienna, 229, 230 ; systematic killing of, 234 ; Monarchist plot discovered by, 230, 239 ; in Austrian jails, 243 ;
oppose Anschluss, 249 ; in Czechoslovakia, 257 ; in Belgium, 280, 282, 283, 287 - 288 ; attacked by French Fascists, 302 ; French collaborationists attacked by, 330 ; and passim
Society of the Holy Ghost, 370
Solidarité Francaise, 304
Somatens, 105
Sosnokowski, General, 344
Sotelo, Calvo, 94, 95
Spahn, Peter, 146

Spain, and Peter's Pence, 24, 38 ; illiteracy in, 87 ; wealth of Church in, 87 ; decline in Catholicism, 88 ; ruthless repression in, 89 ; dictatorship of de Rivera, 89, 90 ; republic declared, 90 ; Civil War in, 95, 96 ; corporate system established, 100 ; anti-Bolshevik legion of, 349 ; consultations of Roosevelt and Cardinal Pacelli on, 388 ; and passim
Spanish Civil War, 95, 96, 304, 340, 387, 401, 404, 408
Special Commission for Russia, 337
Spellman, Francis J., contacts Fascist conspirators, 130 ; and Pope, 131 ; dispatched to Rome, 210, 211 ; appointed "Military Vicar of Army and Navy Chaplains", 367 ; radio talk by, 377 ; consults Cardinal Gasparri, 389
Spoleto, Duke of, 128
Stalin, Marshal, contacted by Roosevelt re Vatican, 210 ; attempts rapprochement with Vatican, 341 - 342, 343, 355 - 356 ; praised by Orthodox Church, 352
Stände, 232, 239
Stieff, Maj. Gen. Hellmuth, 217
Stimson, Henry, 213
Strasser, Gregor, 167, 178
Stresemann, 152, 153, 157
Sturmschar, 181
Sturzo, Don, 110, 113
Sudeten German Party, 259
Suhard, Cardinal, 322, 327, 328, 329
Suñer, Serrano, 94, 101
Suotanes de France, 322
Switzerland, 26
Sword of the Spirit, The, 60

Taafe Government, 225
Tacchi-Venturi, Father, 127, 312, 336
Tartaglia, Fernando, 135
Taylor, Myron, 209, 213, 215, 389, 390, 412
Theodosius, 84
Third Republic, 293, 294, 311, 318, 340
Thirty Years' War, 224, 251
Thyssen, 148, 163
Tien, Cardinal, 33
Timothy, Patriarch, 353, 354
Tiso, Mgr., 81, 223, 263, 264, 265 - 266, 383
Tisserant, Mgr., 329
Titman, 389
Trade unions, 18, 79, 100, 148, 288, 320, 372, 376
Trekow, 217
Treschow, General, 216
Treviranus, 162
Trials of the monks, 187
Tribunals, 35, 39
Truman, President, 390, 391, 393
20th Century Fox Company, 375
"Two Hundred Families," 301

Ukraine, 257, 339 Umberto, Crown Prince, 287 Union Militar Española, 95 Union Nacional Sinarquista, La, 404
Union Republique Democratique, 302
United States of America, source of revenue to Vatican, 23, 24 ; cardinals in, 33 ; religious orders in, 61 ; arms embargo to Spanish Republic, 96 ; warned off Europe by Franco, 102 ; support of Abyssinian War by Catholic press in, 123 ; contacted by Vatican, 129 ; policy in Italy, 130 ; rejects Pope's proposals to fight Russia, 209 ; protests Vatican's praises of Petain, 319 ; recognizes Lublin Government over Vatican's protest, 359 ; and the Vatican, 362 - 398 ; Vatican's objective in, 362, 380, 381 - 382 ; key to Vatican's policy, 363 ; growth of Catholicism in, 364 - 366, 367 ; Catholic organizations in, 366 - 368, 369, 370, 371 - 372 ; efforts of Catholic Church to control movies in, 372 - 376 ; pressure of Catholic Church on press, 376 - 377 ; hatred campaign on arms to Spain issue in, 387 ; partner of Catholic Church in war on Communism, 392 - 393 ; lines of campaign of Catholic Church, 395 ; Constitution assailed, 395 - 396 ; near-intervention in Mexico, 403 - 404 ; policy in China parallel with Vatican, 415
University of Brussels, 288
University of Louvain, 289
Uomo Qualunque, 135
Urban College, 51
Ursuline Order, 365
Valéry, 329
Valladares, Portela, 95
Vannutelli, Cardinal, 112
Van Roey, Cardinal, 287, 289 - 290, 291
Van Zealand, 285
Vargas, President, 407

Vatican, master-mind directing Catholic Church, 19 ; diplomatic political center, 19, 20, 28 ; three aspects of, 21 ; early history of, 21 - 22 ; power, 28 - 41 ; spiritual totalitarianism of, 42 - 54 ; world-wide goal of, 52 ; policy between the two World Wars, 74 - 83 ; encouragement given to dictators, 79, 80, 81 ; aid to Franco, 96, 97, 98 ;
—and Fascist Italy, 107 - 137 ; plans to forestall fall of Mussolini, 129, 130 ; asks generous terms for Italy, 131 ;
—and Germany, 138 - 170 ;
—and World War II, 171 -

Vatican (Contd.) 233 ; agrees to Hitler persecutions, 173 ; fails to condemn "Blood Purge," 178 ; asks Hitler to combine against Bolshevism, 188 ; discusses with Germany plans for invasion of Russia, 193 ; exerts pressure on Poland, 194 ; urges attack on Russia, 197 ; incites nations against Russia, 204 - 206 ; serves as liaison between Allies and German underground, 215 ; tries to save Nazi leaders, 223 ;

—and Austria, 224 - 250 ; endorses Seipel's policies, 233 ; informed of Croatian plot, 239 ; silent on execution of Austrian Socialists, 243 ; plays double game with Dollfuss and Hitler, 244 ; negotiates to bring about Anschluss, 247 ;

—and Czechoslovakia, 251 - 268 ; agreement with Czechoslovakia, 254 ; tries to break Czecho-Russian alliance, 256 - 257 ; organizes demonstration in Prague, 258 ; begins work for ruin of Czech State, 260 ;

—and Poland, 269 - 278 ; instructs Polish Hierarchy to eliminate Orthodox clergy, 274 ; launches campaign against Russia and Communism, 275 ; grand strategy of, 277 ; intrigues with Polish Government in Exile, 278 ;

—and Belgium, 279 - 291 ; intrigues to keep Belgium neutral, 285 ;

—and France, 292 - 331 ; anathematizes Paris Commune, 294 ; attacks Third Republic, 294, 295 ; bargains about Alsace-Lorraine, 299 - 300 ; alliance with French reactionary elements, 301 - 302 ; encourages Petain and fascist plotters, 308, 309, 318 ; Laval's intimacy with, 311 ; dictates policy of collaboration, 323, 325 ; grand plan envisaged by, 325, 326 - 327 ;

—and Russia, 331 - 361 ; enmity for Czarist Russia, 331, 333 ; for Orthodox Church, 331, 332, 333 ; negotiates with Bolshevik leaders, 334 - 337 ; aim between 1930 and 1940, 338, 339, 340, 341 ; plans to utilize Czarist Russians, 337 ; protests admission of Russia to League of Nations, 339 ; refuses to come to terms with Stalin, 341 - 342, 343 - 344, 345, 349, 355 - 356 ; unofficial activity of, to assure Nazi victory in Russia, 349 ; protests recognition of Government in Lublin, 359 ;

—and the United States, 362 - 398 ; aim in the Americas, 362, 380, 381 - 382 ; attitude towards American Catholicism, 379 - 381 ; brings pressure on U. S. to impose arms embargo on Spain, 387 ; Vatican (Contd.)
—and Latin America, 399 410 ; exerts pressure to bring Latin America in line with "Good Neighbor" policy, 401 ; plan for "Latin bloc," 407 - 408 ;
—and Japan, 410 - 413 ; failure of world policy, 413 ;
—and China, 413 - 415

Vatican State, 20, 21 - 27, 396
Vaugoin, Karl, 236, 237
Vedensky, Bishop, 335
Vera, Mother Mary, 395
Verdier, Cardinal, 255, 258
Versailles, Treaty of, 271, 272, 299
Vichy Government, 323
Victor Emmanuel, King, 112, 126, 135, 212
Vlaamsch National Verbond, 286
Von Epp, 164
Von Falkenhausen, 217, 289
Von Galen, Bishop, 184, 185, 194, 205, 221
Von Groener, 153, 160, 163, 164
Von Hagen, Lt. Albrecht, 217
Von Hindenburg, 149, 153, 157, 159, 160, 162 ; turns against left, 165 ; opposes plan for Monarchy, 166 ; dismisses Bruening, 167
Von Ketteler, Bishop, 145
Von Moltke, 147
Von Ossietzky, Carl, 161
Von Papen, Franz, becomes Chancellor, 167 ; intrigues of, 169 ; persuades Hindenburg to make Hitler President, 169 ; negotiates for Concordat, 170 ; sent to Vienna, 245 ; negotiates for Anschluss, 247 ; Vatican's attempt to save, 223 ; and passim
Von Preysing, Count, 185
Von Schlabrendorff, Fabian, 216, 217, 218
Von Schleicher, General, 162, 164, 167, 169, 178
Von Schuschnigg, succeeds Dollfuss, 245 ; summoned to Berchtesgaden, 247 ; courts Socialists, 247 - 248 ; resigns, 250
Von Stahremberg, Prince, 236, 237, 245
Von Stauffenberg, Count, plots to assassinate Hitler, 215, 216 ; offers to kill Hitler, 218 ; fails, 219 ; is executed, 219
Von Stohrer, 102, 308, 309
Von Stulpnagel, General Otto, 217
Von Tirpitz, 146, 148
Von Weizsaecker, Baron, 213, 222
Vorowsky, 335

Walsh, Father, 336
Warsaw uprising, 344, 345
Weimar Coalition, 151
Weimar Constitution, 151, 153, 160, 163
Weimar Republic, 150
Welles, Sumner, 389
We Want Pétain, 307
Weygand, General, made Commander-in-Chief, 310 ; holds secret conferences with Papal representative, 311 ; asks Hitler to restrain Mussolini, 313 ; asks French Government to surrender, 315 ; thwarts plan to continue fight from North Africa, 316 ; announces Paris in hands of Communists, 317 Windthorst, 139, 141, 145
Wirth, Dr., 154
World War I, Centre Party and, 146, 147 ; Erzberger helps Pope to prepare for intervention in, 148 - 149 ; Brest-Litovsk and Bucharest, 149 ; Armistice signed by leader of Catholic Party, 149 ; and passim
World War II, and the Vatican, 171 - 223 ; see Hitler; and passim

York, Archbishop of, 358
Young Catholic Messenger, The, 368
Young Men's Christian Association, 38, 39
Yugoslavia, 233, 238, 239
Yugoslavia, King of, 128, 238
Zamora, Alcalá, 93
Zita, Empress, 233


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