VOL.II - cont.
THE EUROPEAN REVOLUTION. 1768-1789
THE period of a little more than twenty years which elapsed between the passage of the ill-fated Townshend Acts by the English Parliament and the final steps in the organization of the American colonies into an independent state, marks the last great turning-point in the long road from mediæval to modern forms of thought and action in the world's affairs. Its most dramatic circumstance was, of course, the conflict between England and her colonies. But the American Revolution was by no means the only event of importance in those momentous years, nor the independence of the United States of America the only great result of the period. Seldom within so brief a time has Europe had the foundations of her beliefs and traditions so profoundly altered, or the longstanding practices of her every-day life so rudely disturbed. Had there been no revolt of the colonies this would still have been an era of eminent significance in European history.
The European revolution
On the continent itself the year in which the Americans finally appealed to arms was characterized by a series of events which determined for the moment many activities whose origin had long preceded the American revolt, and pointed to the future. That twelvemonth saw the final blow struck against the Jesuits, and the occupation of Ottoman territories by Russia and Austria which indicated the beginning of Turkish decline. It saw the accession of Louis XVI and his Austrian wife to the French throne and the inheritance of misfortune which it entailed. At the same time the enactment of the India Bill and the appointment of Warren Hastings as the first governor-general of India marked the initial step in the reorganization, and, as it proved, the extension of English power in the East. Mean-
European Affairs 1774
while, James Cook returned from the second of those voyages which not only directed English attention to the Pacific and resulted in the settlement of Australia, but, by his discovery that scurvy, the curse of seamen before his time, could be prevented by means of simple changes in diet, added, as it were, a new realm to human activity. Finally, the passage of the Quebec Act began the modern history of Canada.
Still more than these activities in politics, the concurrent developments in the fields of art and intellect exemplified and contributed to the transition now taking place in the European world. In England, a great school of portrait painters, headed by Reynolds, Romney, and Gainsborough, achieved new triumphs in a remarkable combination of modest and graceful naturalness. Meanwhile, Greuze and Boucher and Fragonard continued the more sophisticated naturalism of Watteau in France, where the luxury and licentiousness of the court vitiated morals and taste alike. Continued by Reynolds' followers, Raeburn, Lawrence, and the American Copley, the English "natural" school was reinforced by a group of landscape painters who furthered the reaction against artificiality, and contributed to the "return to nature" fresh sources of strength. And there is perhaps no better evidence of the feeling that man was now at last prepared to meet nature on at least equal terms than the increasing tendency of art and literature to depict her fiercer moods. It was sure confirmation of the fact that man was no longer afraid of his ancient antagonist.
The artistic revival was further strengthened by new mediums of expression. From the preceding centuries had come an art not unrelated to crayon drawing, that of painting in "pastel," or dry color. It rose to eminence in the eighteenth century. Nearly every artist of note, from Watteau to the greatest of the pastelists, Liotard, tried his hand at it, and so established it firmly in the taste and technique of the continent. Allied to pastel was painting in water-color, which owes its origin to this period. This art developed from the old practice of washing in pen-drawings. By substituting paper for canvas, and achieving a variety of effects impossible
--pastel and watercolor
to oils, it extended the field of pictorial representation in another and, as it was to prove, a peculiarly popular direction. For the moment it lent itself particularly to the genius of those last exponents of the expiring rococo style, "the painters of frivolity," who, like Fragonard, devoted their talents to the delineation of beaux and belles, and amatory situations of the high society which for the moment led continental art in its train.
Neither graphic nor plastic art kept pace with the progress of painting, despite the encouragement of royal and noble patronage, the establishment of great galleries, new educational facilities, and the revival of classical models which had followed on the achievements of the archæologists. The genius of David, "the regenerator of French painting," was, indeed, profoundly affected by this last influence; while that of Canova, "third greatest of Italian sculptors," owed much of its inspiration to the same source. With the entry of such men into the field, the vogue of that school which catered to the patronage of the French court and was represented in the beautiful if decadent productions of Fragonard, began to decline. But with the death of Hogarth the talents of his successors were unequal to maintaining line-drawing at the level which he had reached; and though engraving increased in quantity, it was at the expense of its quality.
In another direction, however, not unrelated to general artistic progress, this was a notable period. Classical models in architecture, as in other fields, were still prominent, though a century of development had greatly modified their earlier and more uncompromising outlines. The eighteenth century had seen them adapted with much success to domestic building; and their influence had been especially marked in decoration, both interior and exterior. No small part of the principles known among Anglo-Saxon peoples as Georgian or colonial owe their origin to the last half of this eighteenthcentury classical adaptation. In particular, the work of the English architect, Adam, typifies the movement of the time; not merely on account of the buildings which he designed, but because it was connected in his hands with another art Furniture
whose development makes this period memorable. For, not content with building, he devoted his talents to furnishing, and so put himself in touch with the making of furniture, which reached its golden age in the era of the American Revolution.
This art or craft was influenced not a little by the passion for eastern, in particular Chinese, products, which characterized the taste of the mid-eighteenth century. As architecture was reinforced by the use of stucco, so furniture-making was aided by the introduction and improvement in finishing materials, derived largely from tropical gums whose names, varnish and lacquer, betray their eastern origin. The brilliant if unsubstantial grace of the styles developed in France under Louis Quinze and Louis Seize, and known by their names, owed much of their charm to the marvelous lacquer invented and used by the family of furniture-makers, from whom it derived its name, Vernis Martin. In England, meanwhile, the successive labors of the Chippendales, Sheraton, and the Adams brought the art of furniture-making to the greatest heights it had yet attained. In the work of such men was found a mingling of many styles and many influences, classic, Gothic, oriental, rococo, to produce masterpieces which have stood the test of the changing tastes of more than a century, and remain the models of elegance and sound construction. In such hands formalism was at once relieved and refined, and pronounced advance was made in a not unimportant and certainly an interesting and useful art.
In some measure and on a greater scale the same was true of another phase of human activity, that of music, which now entered on one of the greatest periods of its history. Though Handel had passed away, the oratorio continued its development, in England especially; while its democratic influence was now promoted in a different quarter and by different means. The work of the Italian Goldoni at once elevated light opera to the level of a high art and made it a factor in modern life. It did more. Drawing its motives and characters from the same elements which Molière had earlier exploited in the drama, it put the operatic stage in
touch with every-day life, and strengthened the connection of music with the popular movement which was then influencing almost every department of human existence.
But it was neither in English nor Italian hands that there came the most remarkable triumphs of music in these years. For a century Germany had held high place in that field; and now Haydn, and still more Mozart, following in the footsteps of Bach, and in turn followed by their still greater pupil, Beethoven, pushed past all bounds hitherto set in musical composition. In their hands the opera attained new greatness; and with the elaboration of new forms of expression, the symphony and sonata, music was raised to heights of achievement and capabilities scarcely suspected before. Beyond even the triumphs of Gluck, who had done so much to bring German music into touch with the progress of opera, rose the glory of Mozart. His Idomeneo reached the highest level yet attained in that field; and when to these were added Don Giovanni, the Zauberflöte, and the uncompleted Requiem, and, from Beethoven's hand in later years, the Choral Symphony, the world entered upon the greatest era of its musical history. 1750-89
Besides her triumphs in harmony, Germany astonished the world in two other lines of human achievement. The one was literature. At this juncture, inspired in part at least by the translation of Shakespeare and the example of Percy and his colleagues in the revival of the older and more "natural" forms of literature, an amazing burst of genius suddenly set her among the principal intellectual nations of Europe. There the poet-philosopher, Lessing, who, with Diderot, had done most to foster a critical spirit in European art and letters, had been joined by such men as Wieland and Klopstock to protest against the classical decadence which had overtaken German letters. This "Sturm und Drang" movement, as it came to be known, bent all its genius to the destruction of conventionality, the tyranny of old forms and superstitions, and to encouraging the tendency toward the freedom of "natural" genius.
From that beginning came a new German renaissance.
Herder, with his folk-songs, emulated the triumphs of the English school; and, following him, came the twin stars of Germany's literary constellation, Schiller and Goethe. What Petrarch and Dante had been to Italy in successive centuries, what Shakespeare and Milton had been more recently to England, these two became almost simultaneously to the German people. Schiller, beginning with his romantic drama of the Robbers, proceeded through the medium of historical plays, Wallenstein, Maria Stuart, The Maid of Orleans, to his final and perhaps his greatest work, Wilhelm Tell. At the same time he contributed a history of the Thirty Years' War to that form of literature; wrote philosophical dissertations, enunciating his creed compounded of mysticism and deism; and produced a body of poetry which has made him one of the most read and best loved of German poets.
Beside Schiller towered the genius of his friend, Johann Wolfgang Goethe, the vast range and content of whose mind no less than his literary powers, made his work not merely the culmination of German literary expression, but gave it a place in world literature. Few departments of intellectual effort were alien to his genius. Like Schiller, he began with romantic drama, in Goetz von Berlichingen. Like him, he drew material from history for his dramas, as Egmont, Tasso, Mahomet, and lesser plays fell from his pen. To these Goethe added two other forms; one was the drama drawn from classical sources, like Iphigenia auf Tauris; the other was that strain of sentimental romance which found voice in the Sorrows of Werther, and imitators through the whole German-speaking world. He had, moreover, a lyric gift unequaled in his native tongue, a breadth of mind and human sympathy which, joined to no inconsiderable scientific acquirements, made him the wonder of the European world of intellect. He was at once the representative and the highest type of his literary age. His translation of Gray Elegy, his admiration of Goldsmith Vicar of Wakefield, of Ossian, of Shakespeare above all, testify to the close connection of the forces remaking European life and thought. Moreover, Goethe contributed not only the most considerable
impetus to the Sturm und Drang movement, but, in his Herrmann und Dorothea, and in his ultimate masterpiece, Faust, which only a later generation was to see completed, he gave that impulse to nature and humanity which his novel of Wilhelm Meister foreshadowed, and of which his whole life and work was an example.
If it were not enough to have produced Goethe and Schiller in one generation, with Beethoven and Mozart, Germany crowned the long development of philosophy since Descartes in this same period by the genius of Immanuel Kant. In him there culminated, and, in some sense closed, the era of critical philosophy; for his Critique of Pure Reason, with its comprehensive grasp of method and content, rejected at once the empiricism of the English thinkers like Hume, and the loose emotion of current German thought. God he identified with the general law of ethical necessity; and upon the reason rather than on the emotions he placed the responsibility for conduct. He denied the contention of the mere rationalists that there was any law of absolute truth, as he denied the existence of phenomena without relation to the mind that perceived them. For the abstractions of his predecessors, therefore, he substituted "practical reason," and the "supreme cause" was to him a moral rather than a sensual force. In such fashion was joined the conflict between the realists and the idealists, with which every intellectual force of the period was concerned, and which, from this day to our own, has divided the intellectual and the artistic world. And though he had no intention to "humiliate reason," he relegated it to a secondary place among the faculties. To him the basic quality was the will, and in this he combats alike materialism and spiritual dogmatism. Thus, as in the early seventeenth century the thought of Descartes gave a new basis of reason to the intellectual processes then stimulated by the progress of science, the last years of the eighteenth century were provided with intellectual foundations and formulæ to express the new concepts then coming into existence under the stress of movements which revolutionized man's life and his performance.
These great figures of Germany's golden age personified the highest intellectual achievements of their race; but theirs was not the Germany of Frederick the Great. The mild and peaceful culture of the courts in whose atmosphere their genius flourished, that older and truer Germany between the Rhine and the Elbe, bore little relation to the proud, warlike, unintellectual militarism of the Germanized Slavic lands of Prussia. Weimar, the "German Athens," and not Berlin was the intellectual capital of the German people. Prussia, neither then nor later, produced from her own loins a literature or a culture comparable to that of these small but truly enlightened states. Like Catherine of Russia, Frederick the Great took France for his intellectual guide rather than the genius of his own land. Though these liberal powers were to be overwhelmed and discredited by Prussian might in future years, this overthrow of a German Athens by a Prussian Sparta was to prove more of a loss to the world, and to the German people themselves, than could be atoned for by any aggrandizement of the Hohenzollern dynasty. For with the triumph of absolutism over enlightenment, German literature, philosophy, and culture suffered in proportion as German material prosperity increased.
Into those higher realms of thought, whatever their great importance to the human race, most men have neither cared nor been able to penetrate. But to another series of phenomena which distinguished this period above all others in history they were not so indifferent. While the outlying regions of thought and action, like the remoter confines of European possessions, were thus stirred by new forces, at the very heart of every-day existence there were being wrought changes of no less significance and of far more immediate interest and importance to the masses of mankind.
Their first and most obvious expression was in literature. The Age of Voltaire and the philosophers had merged insensibly into the Age of the American Revolution which transmuted into action the doctrines which had long been at work remolding European thought. The great skeptic had lived to hear of the surrender of Burgoyne; and at the very moment
that he made his final and triumphal visit to Paris there was signed the treaty between France and the colonies which recognized the independence of the United States of America. That circumstance gave a tremendous impetus to the principles of liberty for which he, with his fellow-philosophers, had long contended. There was no hand in France, nor in Europe, both able and willing to take up the pen which fell from his hands. For Goethe, with all his genius, had but a languid interest in politics or the controversy which delighted the soul of the great Frenchman, and Kant's philosophy, even had it taken the form of liberalism, was as yet too remote from popular thought to affect its course.
But if French letters felt the loss of its leader, its spirit remained that of the philosophers; and a host of lesser hands continued the work of Voltaire, Diderot, Rousseau, and Montesquieu. The salons of the free-thinkers flourished. The cult of the common man, of liberalism in religion and politics, was more and more sedulously cultivated; and a thousand circumstances pointed to an approaching revolution. Despite the labors of men like Prévost and St. Pierre, the prevailing tone of French letters was didactic and political. The latter author, indeed, opened a new vein of fiction with his Paul and Virginia, in which the extreme sentimentality of his time was blended with an extra-European setting to produce a new genre of idyllic literature not without its influence on later times. But it had neither philosophical nor political importance save in so far as it reflected the general tendency toward spontaneity and simplicity.
It was not without significance that this apostle of sentiment had begun life as an officer in Mauritius and became the superintendent of the Jardin des Plantes; thus typifying that connection between the various streams of activity which dominated the imagination of his time. Even more typical of that spirit was the Abbé Raynal Histoire philosophique et politique des établissements des Européens dans les deux Indes. This curious compilation, to which many of the group of so-called philosophers contributed, lacked real historical spirit. It was as full of errors as it was of declamation
about liberty, the rights of man, and the current shibboleths of the school to which the author belonged. Yet it enjoyed a peculiar popularity, partly as the first effort to relate the history of Europe beyond the sea, and more largely as the expression in history of the principles of liberalism then being practically exemplified in America and becoming so fashionable in France.
But French literature, especially in history, yielded, like all European efforts in that field, to the labors of the English in this remarkable period. At this moment the British Isles boasted the three greatest living historians, one of whom still challenges comparison with any historical writer before or since. The first was the Scotch philosopher, David Hume, whose death in the year of the American Declaration of Independence removed one of the most distinguished figures of that circle which made Edinburgh at this time a principal intellectual center of Europe. He belonged to the rationalistic school; and his Natural History of Religion was one of the earliest efforts of that group to carry the conflict between science or philosophy and theology into the field of dogmatism and revelation. His contributions to psychology, ethics, and economics ranked him among the leading intellects of his time. His History of England, chiefly by virtue of its style,--for he was no historian in the modern sense,-had become and long remained the classic account of England's development; nor with all of its bias and its inaccuracy was it without its merits for the days in which it was written.
English literature --the historians
Not inferior in style and infinitely superior in method to Hume was his countryman Robertson, who, in addition to his labors on the history of Scotland, devoted his talents to the same subject which had attracted the Frenchman, Raynal, and had produced the earliest of German colonial historians, --the doings of Europeans beyond the sea. It was the symbol of a changing age when British, French, and German writers took up the task of explaining to their countrymen the story of those regions then for the first time breaking away from European leading-strings. And it was emphasized by the
appearance of another historical production from the pen of one, who, by his position on the English Board of Trade and in the House of Commons, had done something to precipitate that catastrophe.
In the year of the Declaration of American Independence there was published the first volume of Edward Gibbon History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Inspired and informed by the labors of scholarship, antiquarianism, and archæology which distinguished the eighteenth century, Gibbon's work was peculiarly characteristic of the intellectual movement of its time and by far its greatest historical product. It raised English and indeed European historical writing to a plane scarcely reached since the days of Thucydides. For to a great gift of style it added scientific method, great learning, and a sweep of imagination which made it a literary portent of the time, comparable in value with the labors of the scientists and philosophers, and in popularity with that of the novelists.
With Gibbon's work modern historical writing may be said to begin. It partook of another quality which gave it sensational importance and produced a whole library of controversy. Like his contemporaries, Gibbon was profoundly influenced by rationalistic thought, and at least two of his chapters,--those which ventured to enumerate the nonspiritual causes for the spread of primitive Christianity,-became the object of the bitterest attacks of the orthodox, and the prophecy of a new era of historical approach.
It might well be argued that the year 1776 is the most important date in history since the discovery of America or the fall of Constantinople, as the one from which the final stage of European revolution took its rise. For it marks not only the formal separation of the new world from the old and the entry of an astonishing number of new ideas into European thought, but it was the climax of a period which revolutionized European thought and practice in nearly every field of human activity. This is especially true of the literature concerning itself with public affairs and those concerns which we commonly think of in terms of statesmanship. In that
field the simultaneous publication of two volumes in a sense marked the final break with the theories of the past and laid the foundations of a new era of thought, and presently of practice, in economics and government. The first was the Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. by the Scotch political philosopher-economist, Adam Smith. It is scarcely too much to say that his work is not unworthy to set beside even Jefferson's immortal document as a landmark in the history of liberty. Whether its author be regarded as the founder of that school of economic thought which has governed men from his time almost to our own and still exercises a powerful influence on affairs, or whether he be looked on as merely the greatest exponent of the tendencies of his own time, it is true that,--completing the work begun by the Physiocrats,--he sounded the death-knell of mercantilism.
Adam Smith 1723-90
His work was infused with that historical spirit which had been so lacking in most earlier economic writing but was so characteristic of his day, and had proved one of the most powerful antagonists of authority. It emphasized the principle enunciated by the Physiocrats known as laissez-faire-the spirit of individual initiative as against that of the paternal authority of the state, of competition against monopoly, of the operation of "natural" laws in politics and economics against the artificiality which had long prevailed there. And however that spirit tended to ignore the problem of welfare in its emphasis upon wealth, however it found itself in need of correction as the era of unrestricted competition and industrialism--"the age of tooth and claw"--came on, it was not only in full accord with the instinct of a generation bent on breaking the long domination of authority, privilege, and aristocratic supremacy, but it played a great part in that emancipation. His book was not merely a classic of economic literature; it had profound and far-reaching effect on practical affairs. The praise which has been accorded its influence had found expression in the assertion that had it appeared a generation earlier there would have been no American Revolution; and its influence may be measured by
the complete reversal of English policy which it and its successors effected within the ensuing half-century.
Were these not enough to mark 1776 as an annus mirabilis, there appeared at the same moment another book, briefer, less easily comprehensible, and far less popular than that of Smith, but scarcely less influential on political thought and ultimately on political practice. This Fragment on Government brought into European view the doctrines of Jeremy Bentham, in whose hands the principles sketched by Hobbes in the seventeenth century and elaborated by lesser men in the eighteenth were formulated into the school of thought known as utilitarian. To these men the chief object to be sought by organized society was, in their famous phrase, "the greatest good of the greatest number"; the chief test of government, utility; the chief motive of human action, selfinterest. In this doctrine they aligned themselves, consciously or unconsciously, on the side of democracy. Utilitarianism reckoned pleasure and pain the chief motives in life, and ignored many higher and deeper springs of action. It followed eighteenth-century fashion in lowering the plane of thought and action in the interest of practicality. None the less it exercised a profound and not unsalutary effect on future thought and still more on legislation. When supplemented by Bentham's work on the Principles of Morals and Legislation, which coincided with the formation of the American constitution, it gave his doctrines a position, particularly in the field of legislative reform, comparable to those of the Scotch economist in political economy. If the one revolutionized the theories which underlay the vast complex of politics, manufacturing, and commerce, the other influenced no less that, other related complex of politics, morals, and society. To these again may be added the work of two great lawyers, the Englishman Blackstone, whose Commentaries provided a manual of theory and practice for generations, and the Frenchman Pothier, whose labors laid the foundation for the French Civil Code.
In itself this literary and philosophic production was remarkable. It was still more remarkable when taken in connection with the development in another line which had unquestionably done much to turn men's thoughts to such matters and with which it was to have such tremendous interaction. Among the claims of the eighteenth century to a high place in history is the fact that it was the period in which the modern world of agriculture and industry took its rise. In England, particularly, the so-called Agricultural Revolution was reaching its zenith during the years of the American revolt. During the preceding half-century almost every phase of production from the soil and the breeding of cattle had been improved beyond the imagination of preceding generations. It is perhaps unworthy the dignity of the chroniclers of kings and ministers to record the fact that in this period crop returns were doubled by more scientific cultivation, and that the weight of cattle and sheep was increased by half through careful selection in breeding and the spread of root crops for feeding. But it may be within even their province to note that by the time of George III and Louis XVI farming had become not only profitable but fashionable; or that, as a sign of the more practical side of the eighteenth century's return to nature, George Washington was not only the savior of the American cause but one of the foremost agriculturists of his time; while George III's favorite title was that of "a gentleman of Berkshire."
The Agricultural Revolution 1760-89
These are trifles significant of a rapidly altering society, and a no less rapidly changing attitude toward affairs. It was reflected and reinforced by another phenomenon of importance to many classes of society. The increased rewards derived from land made land more valuable; and in England especially it led to a revolution not only in cultivation but in distribution. The immemorial common field system was destroyed. The common lands were inclosed; and small farms were consolidated into large holdings more easily and more profitably worked by those possessed of capital. The effect was twofold. On the one hand, production was increased; on the other, the destruction of the small landholder, or yeoman class, long since begun, was virtually completed. The generation which experienced the troubles in America effected the greater part of the first stages of this change largely through the action of a landlord Parliament which secured its monopoly by enclosure acts. This tendency was less observable on the continent, where the land-holding classes had no such legislative powers. And while in the hands of men fitted by knowledge, skill, and capital this grazing or waste land developed into greater productivity, and so increased the wealth of the nation, it is now questionable whether the social loss by lowering the status of the agricultural masses did not more than offset the economic gain of larger crops.
The situation of these lower classes in what was at this time the leading agricultural, industrial, and commercial nation in Europe, was thus depressed, not less by their own dispossession than by the relative improvement of their superiors, as they descended into mere laborers. It is, indeed, difficult to determine what would have been their fate had it not been for another phenomenon which at this precise moment tended for the time to provide their surplus numbers with a market for their only commodity, their labor. This was the so-called Industrial Revolution, whose results are not to be reckoned inferior to the revolt of the colonies, nor, indeed, to any event since the discovery of America.
The Industrial Revolution 1760-89
Like its agricultural forerunner, its earliest seat was the British Isles. There the development of manufacturing had proceeded on different lines and on a larger scale than in any other European country, and there it was but natural to expect the most marked improvements in mechanism.
Provided with markets not only on the adjacent continent but in far-flung colonies and dependencies bound to her by the closest of comercial restrictions, and controlling virtually the sea-going commerce of the world, England, unlike France, had found her chief profits during the eighteenth century in staple and quantity, rather than in articles of quality and fashion. Her manufactures, like her commerce, had doubled, even trebled, in fifty years, till, especially in the two great fields of iron and weaving, she now led the world. That progress had been accompanied and in large measure caused by two circumstances. The first was her colonial policy, which at once provided her with enormous supplies of raw material and made her the manufacturing, commercial, and financial center of her empire. The second was the improvement in her methods of production and distribution.
The development of coal and iron mines in which the continent was as yet relatively deficient, the supplies drawn from across the sea, coupled with the industry and skill of her artisans and her unsurpassed merchant marine, no less than the resources and ability of her financiers, were aided by still another and perhaps the most important of her advantages,--the ingenuity of her inventors. Until well into the eighteenth century England, like the rest of the continent, depended almost wholly upon the so-called cottage system of manufacturing, and very largely on hand labor. Throughout Europe the horse-driven treadmill was used to some extent. The windmill, which adorned the Dutch landscape and provided power for Dutch mills, found little or no place elsewhere; and water provided the chief means of propulsion for such machinery as was not driven by the human hand or foot. The fuel for smelting operations had long been provided by the forests; and it was not until the period of the wars of the Austrian Succession that pit-coal began to replace wood and charcoal. Only in coal-mining was steam power used, and that in the form of the relatively crude Newcomen pumping-engine, used to clear the mines of water. Other attempts to apply this principle to the driving of stationary engines, or to means of communication by land or water had not as yet been a practical success.
In some measure industrial development had been stimulated by improvements in spinning and weaving which characterized the second quarter of the century. The foot-driven spinning-wheel was still in use, with some modifications from its original form, and the efforts to substitute some mechanical means, like rollers, to draw out and twist the threads, were as yet commercially unsuccessful. Weaving was more fortunate. The flying-shuttle of Kay, and his later invention of shuttle-boxes, greatly increased the capacity and ease of
Spinning and weaving 1730-60
manipulation of the loom. Finally its adaptation to figured work, begun by the Frenchmen Falcon and Bouchon, in the same period, extended its capabilities and formed probably the greatest advance in weaving since the invention of the loom itself.
With these improvements the weavers for the moment passed beyond the capacity of the spinners to produce thread sufficient for their purposes; and the inventors at once began to endeavor to remedy that serious deficiency. The years of the American Revolution saw the difficulty removed. James Hargreaves, an English blacksmith, devised what was known as a spinning-jenny, which realized the dream of producing threads by machinery. But the Hargreaves machine, though it spun twenty or thirty threads at a time, could not make them strong enough for warp. Almost at once, however, Richard Arkwright contrived an improved jenny which was capable of producing as many threads as Hargreaves' device, and of any required fineness and strength. Ten years later, at the crisis of the American troubles, Samuel Crompton corrected the defects of the spinning-jenny by the invention of the "mule," which could twist threads suitable for the weaving of muslin, and so came to be known as the muslinwheel. With these inventions the spinners caught up with the weavers, and the industry was revolutionized. Within a decade the manufacture of textiles was transferred from the handworkers, who had carried it on since the dawn of history. For the first time it became possible not only to take raw wool, cotton, flax, or silk and weave fabrics virtually without the use of the hands, save to direct the machines; but, what was more important, to produce from the same amount of labor an enormously increased output of goods. Hargreaves 1764
There remained the problem of power to drive these machines. Arkwright had first used horses, then the waterwheel, with moderate success. But even while he was casting about for other and better methods of operation, a Scotch instrument-maker, one James Watt, engaged in repairing a model of the Newcomen engine, was inspired to correct its defects. The original steam-engine had been merely the Watt 1736-1819
application to a pump of steam which, reversing the pumping principle, drove the piston forward and so worked the handle. It had many flaws, the chief of which was the enormous waste of power. This Watt endeavored to correct, chiefly by various devices to conserve the steam. These included the condenser; the use of oil to lubricate the piston which would thus work more easily and hold in the steam more effectively; a covering to the upper end of the cylinder and its inclosure in an outer shell of non-conducting material; and a device to keep the piston-rod, as well as the piston, in a steam-tight compartment. By such means he preserved a great part of the heat which had been largely wasted in the NewcomenSavery engine, and so increased its power enormously. To this he added other devices to regulate its action--the throttlevalve, the governor to control the speed of rotation, and the indicator to record steam pressure. He found means to convert the back and forth motion of the piston to the rotary motion necessary to drive the wheels of a machine, as well as to keep the piston to a straight line and enable it to pull as well as push, and a process of so-called "expansive working," by which the steam drove the piston forward by its expansion after entering the cylinder. With these devices the steamengine took on much the form which, save for the use of superheated steam, it has since maintained; and the new source of power, thus effectively harnessed, became the motive principle of another era of human development. The steam engine
It is scarcely too much to say that Watt began a new age of the world. The improvements in the manufacture of iron and steel which had preceded his invention were now enormously stimulated by the power he put in men's hands to handle metal in quantities and sizes hitherto impossible. The necessity for more and better material for the production of machinery in turn brought with it an advance in the processes of mining and smelting. The application of steam power first to cotton mills, then to blast furnaces, increased both their capacity and adaptability to conditions of production. Coal took the place of water as the chief source of power; and wherever it was available there sprang up the first products of the Industrial Revolution, the factories. Hand labor, indeed, continued long, but with decreasing ability to meet the competition of man's new servant in quantity production. Thus at the same moment that the political revolution in Europe came to its fruition, the mechanical revolution began to transform the industrial and social conditions of the world.
For the effects of English inventive genius were by no means confined to the mere field of industry. As production was thus infinitely multiplied it brought in its wake an infinity of unsuspected forces and results. To the centers of the new manufacturing activity, the factory towns, were drawn increasing thousands of workers. This not merely shifted population from one district to another, but made the long-neglected regions which produced the coal necessary for the new source of power, the scenes of unexampled energy and wealth. They brought with them great problems of society. Wealth and its unequal distribution grew in equal pace. Beside the landlord, the factory owner took his stand, in the revised arrangement of society. Beside, or in the place of agricultural tenant or laborer, appeared the factory hand; and every social class and force was compelled to readjust itself to the situation thus produced. This was no mere question of wealth and labor; it was a problem of life,-for human society no less than industry was revolutionized.
Results of the Industrial Revolution
Not merely was the productive capacity of the world multiplied, strangely enough demand increased proportionately with supply--or better, perhaps, supply proved for the first time equal to demand. And, as always happens in such cases, men found their desires, even their necessities, increased by the very wealth of new material placed at their disposal. The world became capable of supporting more human beings, with more wants; and instead of relieving the pressure for production, that pressure actually increased.
The result was an unprecedented stimulus to every phase of human activity. New conditions of existence, new problems of wealth and welfare, new organisms within the body politic, a whole new world of men and conditions, arose with startling rapidity from the situation thus produced. So strange was it to human experience that nothing short of the marvelous tale of Aladdin's genius of the lamp, or the fantastic tale of Frankenstein, sufficed to provide a parallel. Nor is that parallel complete, since the industrial genius and the social Frankenstein, so far from being bottled or destroyed by those who summoned them into existence, have come to be the dominant powers of modern society. The stimulus of the demand for labor was soon felt in an increase of population; and among the manifold and unexpected results of the industrial revolution not the least important was the enormous increase of European peoples, with its complex and far-reaching consequences.
These great changes, whose principal results belong to later generations, were accompanied by two other phenomena, not unrelated to the movement typified by Watt and his fellow-inventors. The latter represented that spirit of empirical or even accidental talent which, unrelated to scientific advance, produces inventions, so to speak, from its inner consciousness. Watt, on the other hand, achieved his success not only by this process but by his study of the properties of the material on which his fame was based, steam. Something of that spirit was evident in the other scientific achievements of his time, whose history is the record of great names. Herschel's improvement of the telescope now enlarged man's knowledge of the planetary system with the discovery of Uranus. The Mécanique Céleste of Laplace, whose mathematical solution of the mechanics of the universe formed the greatest of astronomical contributions since Newton Principia, joined to the work of Lagrange and Euler and their contemporaries, was to round out the eighteenth century's task of deducing and generalizing the achievements of astronomy. Those labors were yet under way; and it was not until the beginning of the nineteenth century that they were completed and accepted. But by the time which we have now reached, a great part of the work upon which they were based had been accomplished; and it was the province of Laplace to combine the series of eighteenth-century tri-
Science and invention
umphs in astronomy into a systematic whole, no less than to infuse that body of knowledge with his own genius.
Coincident, and in a sense corollary to these astronomical achievements, were the concurrent investigations of the earth. In these years Werner established the principles of geological formation; while Häney and Dolomieu laid the foundations of mineralogy. Buffon published his Epoques de la Nature, the first attempt to deal chronologically with the history of the earth. Finally Hutton and his disciple Playfair inaugurated that classification of geological strata, which, expanded presently by the work of Lamarck and Cuvier on fossils, began modern geology. Meanwhile, the explorers were not idle; and to the achievements of Cook were added those of Mackenzie, who first reached the river which bears his name and followed it to the Arctic. The polar regions and central Africa felt the presence of adventurous travelers. And, apart from his labors in delineating the world as it was revealed by these new additions to knowledge, the French cartographer, d'Anville, rendered such service to the cause of ancient and even mediæval historical geography as to make him the virtual founder of that branch of human learning. It is not surprising that, with these advances in knowledge, philosophers and theologians alike were compelled to revise their beliefs, and among the circumstances which typified the times, not the least significant is the fact that Kant lectured on physics and physical geography.
Geology and geography
No less remarkable were the advances in physics and chemistry. For in those years, among a multitude of scarcely less important discoveries, the experiments of Volta and Galvani produced the electric pile and the battery generating a continuous current, upon which the future of electricity so largely depended. The chemists were no less active. The labors of Priestley and Lavoisier dealt a final blow to the phlogiston theory which had long hampered advance, and with the resolution and re-creation of water from its elements pointed out new lines of investigation. Scheele and Priestley finally isolated oxygen. Cavendish and Berthollet laid the foundations of pneumatics; Scheele continued to provide the
Physics and chemistry 1768-89
world with new materials for its use, among which chlorine and glycerine were the most conspicuous. And these, with an increasing company of investigators besides, added from year to year, almost from month to month, to man's knowledge of nature and her laws; and increased his capacity to adapt them to his own purposes.
The biologists, meanwhile, contributed to the same end, as the contemporaries and successors of Linnæus and Buffon continued and completed their work. The classification and systematization of plants and animals, which had marked the century, led inevitably to consideration of the reasons why so many varieties of animal life occurred. With this came the beginning of that theory of species which was to lead to the modern doctrine of evolution. Among its pioneers the name of Lamarck was conspicuous; while Spallanzani's work on the problems of generation introduced another element of the highest importance to the study of life and its mysteries. Still more practical were the investigations of the blood, which in the hands of Jenner were to lead to the vaccination treatment and the consequent betterment of human health.
It is apparent from the most cursory review of the more conspicuous contributions to human knowledge and capacity in this noteworthy period that Europeans had come to another turning-point not only in their affairs but in their thought. What the rationalists had hardly been able to accomplish in their attacks upon the theologians, the scientists now began to achieve. Before the discoveries of the geologists and astronomers the Mosaic doctrines of the origin and age of the earth began to crumble; and with them went much beside. The change affected much more than foundations of belief. The eighteenth century was at once skeptical and sentimental, highly theoretical yet severely practical, intellectual but curiously humanitarian. And, as a result of these strangely assorted qualities, it developed, among its other manifestations, a remarkable tendency toward the alleviation of human ignorance and suffering, inspired and directed by its passion for organization.
Influence upon thought and belief
It was, above all, infused with the spirit which had already produced one revolution and was preparing another,--the attention to the common man. This rose to eminence at the very moment that aristocratic dominance seemed at its height. And if the development of political and economic philosophy paralleled the progress of science and invention to increase the wealth of nations, the development of that movement to which we give the name of humanitarian was a still more remarkable evidence of the changing standards of society. "Man's inhumanity to man makes countless thousands mourn," wrote Burns. And it was in the effort to correct somewhat the suffering and injustice which men endure at the hands of their fellows that the later eighteenth century, from the so-called enlightened despots of the continent to the democratic English reformers, began a new age of social regeneration.
It was, perhaps, natural that, as the French political theorists had led the way in the reaction against the apotheosis of royal authority exemplified in Louis XIV, the English reformers led the way in the reaction against the evils originating in the peculiar development of their own society. In the nation which, after the Portuguese, had most profited from the slave-trade, there was begun a movement destined to put an end to that wretched traffic. Lord Mansfield, among the great series of decisions which contributed to his fame as the founder of the English commercial law, and the political activities which caused him to be called "the founder of modern Toryism," gave utterance to a famous judgment which made a freeman of any man who set foot on English soil, whatever his previous status. He himself was far from a propagandist; but there sprang up in the years of the American Revolution a school of devoted antislavery advocates, Ramsay, Sharp, Clarkson, and William Wilberforce. Their efforts within one generation were to abolish the slave-trade, and in another to abolish slavery throughout the British Empire.
Rise of humanitarianism --the slave trade
At the same time, owing in part perhaps to the so-called "evangelical movement" growing out of the religious revival of the century, other forces rallied to the protection of society. Robert Raikes founded the "Sunday School," which thenceforth, especially in the hands of the Nonconformists, played a great part in church affairs. The activities of the prison reformer, John Howard, who was the greatest figure of an increasing group, began the practical betterment of the fearful prison conditions which had long disgraced Europe. This was furthered by the talents of men like Bentham who founded a new school of theory and practice in the treatment of criminals, and not merely revolutionized penology but opened new avenues of social thought and service.
Sunday school and prison reform 1780
Such activities were emphasized by a change in judicial procedure which came to affect the whole European world. From very early times the use of torture in extracting evidence from unwilling witnesses had been common to most European countries, and recognized as a part of the criminal code in virtually every nation save England. Even there the royal houses of Tudor and Stuart had used it as an engine of state though not of law. Following the work of reformers --the English penologists, like Bentham, and the Italian writers on criminal subjects, like Becearia and Burlamaqui,-there came a rapid change in men's attitude toward this practice. It is a notable feature of the general movement toward the alleviation of manners as well as morals that the Age of the American Revolution saw its virtual abolition in nearly every European country save perhaps some of the German states where it had always found its principal foothold and its chief defenders. Nor is it without significance that the last auto-da-fé was held at the same time that torture disappeared from European practice. Thus the institutions which in an age of faith had claimed as victims such different individuals as Machiavelli, Bruno, and Villon, Savonarola, Servetus, and Campanella, by the irony of circumstance disappeared in the age of skepticism.
Abolition of torture 1763-89
This circumstance is not merely notable as an evidence of the changing attitude of Europeans toward matters of belief, and as a prophecy of greater tolerance, of gentler manners, and more rational action. It revealed a wider sympathy and a deeper recognition of the varied aspects of humanity. Still more, the humanitarian movement began to develop protective agencies for a society experiencing new disabilities, new problems, and new evils arising from its own success in material fields. In the efforts to adjust the diverging interests of the wealthy few with the welfare of the many; in the endeavor to ameliorate the suffering and injustice increasingly evident in human relationships; no less than in the attempt to relate social with material and intellectual progress, the eighteenth century revealed one of the principal concerns of the modern world. This was not wholly the product of skepticism. But, whatever the cause, modern ideals proved superior to those of the ancients, and modern Christianity, reinforced by rationalism, superior to ancient paganism, or mediæval superstition in this respect at least.
The spirit of liberty thus making itself felt so powerfully in practice was no less evident in the literature of the period. While France followed the footsteps of the philosophers, the British Isles, concrete as always in their expression of emotion, had entered on another phase of their literary progress closely connected not only with the return to nature and the cause of political emancipation but with the rising cult of common humanity. English literature had begun to outlive the Age of Pope and to substitute imagination and sympathy for correctness and criticism. It had experienced Fielding and Richardson, Smollett and Sterne; and it was now at a point which produced forms of expression which, like the outlines of politics and thought, seem more familiar to modern eyes. From the French had been borrowed the genre of the epistle, and the aristocratic authors, Lord Chesterfield, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, had worked that vein almost to exhaustion. From the antiquarians had been secured that impulse to revive the past, which was evident in the forgeries of the unfortunate Chatterton and in the scarcely more genuine productions of Ossian, as well as the labors of Bishop Percy in his Reliques of Ancient Poetry. From the general tendency toward systematization which characterized the age had come the Dictionary of Dr. John-
The "natural school"
son, and the first edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, whose appearance coincided with the first year of Lord North's administration. 1770
English literary activity was not dependent on borrowing. Diderot's great Encyclopædie had begun, in fact, as the translation of an English production of like nature. And, in another direction, the British Isles contributed an element of profound importance to literary evolution.
The curious phenomenon which the eighteenth century exhibited in its search for happiness, was evident here no less than on the continent. Voltaire had undertaken the search in his Candide; the lexicographer, Dr. Johnson, added his contribution in Rasselas; the American Declaration of Independence echoed it; and Gibbon did not think his history complete without attributing that golden age to the Antonine era of Roman history. But it remained to the most graceful of poet-essayists, Oliver Goldsmith, to offer a solution for the mystery which was typical of the altering standards of life and letters. He discovered its seat, not in the distant palaces of the East nor in the remote ages of the past, but in the eighteenth-century cottage and the simple life of the Vicar of Wakefield. That motive he emphasized in the greatest poem since Pope, The Traveller, who, reviewing his journeys, concludes, with Milton, that happiness depends not on political conditions, or any artificial state, but that the human heart can "in itself make hell of heaven and heaven of hell."
The "search for happiness"
Goldsmith, who died the year before the battle of Lexington, was, with all his personal peculiarities, the true prophet of the oncoming generation. Like Rousseau, he lacked the qualities which made for worldly eminence. Like him he was neither deeply learned nor of good judgment; but like the great Frenchman and far more appealingly and clearly, he voiced the sentiment of his time and the profoundest truths of society. He had many echoes. It was in the household tasks that Cowper found his inspiration; in a country churchyard that Gray penned his immortal Elegy. And in the lines of men like these there echoed not merely the return
The "common man"
to the simple and natural, the spirit of liberty and equality, but that sentiment of sympathy and universal humanity which is the greatest product of the later eighteenth-century mind. When that movement was crowned with the work of the Scottish plowman, Burns, who challenged the old régime with his lines, "The rank is but the guinea's stamp, A man's a man for a' that," it was already apparent that the world was set on a new course. For these were more than pleasing literary productions, they were the heralds of a new order of society.
With these movements, intellectual, industrial, political, and sentimental, was bound up another issue, which, in a sense, was not unrelated to them all. It was the opening of new lands and new opportunities beyond the sea. When, hard-pressed by her old rivals, the exigencies of her domestic affairs, and the successes of her rebellious colonies in America, England had been compelled to recognize the independence of her greatest oversea possession, concede home rule to Ireland, and surrender some of her earlier conquests, it was evident that a great change impended in world politics. But it was not apparent what that change implied. To many it appeared that English dominance was on the wane. They thought her empire had felt a mortal blow; that the downfall of her colonial supremacy had come; that the England of Elizabeth, of Cromwell, and of Pitt was at an end; and that her possessions oversea, like her French conquests after Henry V, would presently revert to other hands. Few or none foresaw that her power was destined to a new lease of life, surpassing even that which went before. Not even the most sanguine of prophets anticipated that the conflict just closed was but the beginning of an age of revolution which would raise a family of free states in the new world; and in the old would bring new classes to the conduct of affairs. None could conceive that the inchoate state now cast adrift from the old European system would become, within a century, not only the most advanced society yet founded outside the one from whence it sprung, but comparable in power, wealth, and size to even the greater states of Europe itself.
Exploration and Colonization
Map of the voyage and discoveries of Captain James Cook, Map of the European World 1783 are only an approximation. 1587 map (p. 332), what advance was made in Australasian 1768-80, of which the outlines in the large colored It will seen by comparison, especially with the cartography by the voyages of Tasman and Cook. Least of all did any prophesy that there should rise in the antipodes still other states, based on not unlike principles, to carry on in those unknown regions the principles and practices of European life.
Yet even before the peace was signed, something of all of these great changes was under way. The first result was in those distant lands which Cook's voyages had brought to European and especially to English eyes, in the preceding twenty years. This land, once called New Holland, and rechristened by him Australia, the English administration, moved by the necessity of reorganizing its system of transporting convicts, which had been checked by the American Revolution, began to consider as a solution of the problem of its criminals. America was no longer available. France and Spain were ready and able to oppose fresh aggression, even were that considered; and the expedient first adopted, of sending the unfortunates to Guinea, was so deadly that the awakening conscience of the government revolted against the condemnation to slow and horrible death which it involved. Though the new regions which Cook's discoveries had laid open to European knowledge and occupation were distant, they were not inhospitable; and there, whatever her neighbor's jealousies, they were little inclined and less able to oppose an English occupation. Five years, therefore, after the peace was signed, England despatched a convict ship thither. At a spot pointed out by Cook as fit for settlement and christened Botany Bay was set up the first of those penal settlements, which, for a generation, were recruited by two thousand convicts a year. Under such unpromising auspices, surrounded by every adverse circumstance, began a new extension of European power and occupation, destined in the ensuing century to conquer its earlier disadvantages and distress, and, under vastly altered conditions, form a powerful European state in the South Pacific.
It would have been surprising if amid such revelations of energy in so many fields the politics of Europe had felt none of the general impulse to progress. Nor was this the case.
The earlier years of the century, indeed, had been little disturbed by creative legislation; and reform, like law, had been silent amid the conflict of arms and diplomacy. But what those years had lacked was fully atoned for in the last quarter of the century. Following the constructive work begun by Lord North's administration and the reforms forced on the government by the increasing opposition strength bent on reduction of the royal power, the administration of the younger Pitt, which succeeded an interregnum of coalition ministries, committed the new Tory Party to a program of reorganization.
--the younger Pitt 1784-1801
Widely as continental monarchies varied from that of England, different as were the means they used, their efforts had been directed to not dissimilar ends. Even while Catherine intrigued with Frederick for the partition of Poland and warred with Sweden for the Baltic provinces, she, like her great Prussian contemporary, labored to give her people a sound administration. Greater than either in the effort to reform the old abuses and bring government abreast of progress in other fields was the Emperor Joseph II, who meanwhile became the ruler of all the Hapsburg territories. While he was the author of the one considerable conflict which disturbed Europe in the decade which followed the Peace of Versailles, the Austro-Turkish war, he strove with single aim to consolidate his heterogeneous dominions. His failure might well have daunted a less zealous character. In his endeavors to secure religious toleration, he antagonized the church which claimed the allegiance of half his subjects. His efforts to equalize taxes irritated the higher classes; while that to unify his people by imposing the German language on them all alienated every non-German subject from Belgium to Hungary. Only his early death and the accession of his brother Leopold, who, as Grand Duke of Tuscany, had played the part of benevolent despot with sound judgment and success, preserved the Empire from the spread of insurrection which broke out in the Austrian Netherlands as a retort to the tactless and ill-timed zeal of the most eminent reformer of his time. But even the beginnings of colonization in the Pacific, and the first steps in the establishment of sound administration along modern lines in European states, yielded in importance to the developments in America during the six years which followed the Peace of Paris. Those developments, indeed, attracted but little attention in Europe. Beside the labors of Pitt and Catherine, of Joseph II and the enlightened despots in whose activities there seemed the fairest promise of progress in the important science and art of government, the doings of the American colonists appeared of little significance.
This is not to be wondered at. Scarcely a nation, much less a well-organized state, the thirteen colonies which emerged into independence bound together by the loosest of ties, lacked nearly every element of strength when measured by old world standards. Their territory, indeed, surpassed that of any European power save one. But, hemmed in by the provinces which England still retained and by the Spanish territories, the claim to much of the land nominally theirs was still disputed by fierce and powerful Indian tribes, while English troops still occupied the western posts to insure performance of treaty obligations. Theirs was of all lands then inhabited by Europeans outside the old world probably best fitted for white settlement. For, unlike South America, no tremendous natural obstacles divided one region from another, and no extremes of heat or cold, arid or torrential areas made the land unlivable; while within its far-reaching boundaries the products of every clime from Egypt to Scandinavia could be grown, and it contained incalculable if-scarcely suspected mineral wealth. Moreover, its rivers and ports and inland seas increased its unsurpassed natural opportunities; and it suffered only the immediate disadvantages incident to any such new society.
The United States of America
Its economy was still simple. Still essentially an agricultural community, relieved by trapping, trading, fishing, and a slender commerce, now cut off from British markets, it was a race of countrymen. A few ports claimed the rank of cities; the temporary capital, Philadelphia, with most
reason, though it numbered scarcely thirty thousand souls. The average of material prosperity was consequently high, but wealth was evenly distributed; and the prevailing homespun typified the society which it clothed. England had already entered the factory stage of industry. But the use of steam was as yet all but unknown in America, as elsewhere; and in so far she was ill-equipped to solve the problem of her inheritance. In most fields, intellectual activity, like customs, manners, laws, and language, was a reflex of England. Only in three particulars did the Americans excel. The first was the insatiable curiosity and inventiveness of the New Englander; the second was a certain political capacity, born of colonial self-government and nourished by the Revolution; the third was the self-confident courage of the pioneer spirit which enabled the new society to face the future as it faced the wilderness, ignorant but unawed.
Its chief disadvantages were largely the product of its environment and the effect of the recent conflict. Its selfcontained and largely self-supporting communities had hitherto been bound together as little by tradition of common interests and activities as by economic interdependence or by geographical or political exigence. In means of communication as in sympathies they were only less distant from Europe than from each other; for there was little community among merchant and farmer and fisherman of the north, the southern planter, and the western pioneer. Between the states and within them existed the perpetual antagonism of conflicting interests, which even the crisis of the war had not repressed. The replacing of wealthy, cultured, and conservative loyalists by a more radical element had done much for democracy but little for unity; since the new leaders, now chosen to state offices, jealous of popular rights and local privilege, confirmed in separatist principles, were as ready to oppose the Congress they had created as the Parliament whose authority they had destroyed. They had, as one of their ablest countrymen observed, "talked liberty so long they had forgotten the necessity of government."
Of the three problems which faced this new society, social improvement, expansion, and unity, the last was most pressing. The organization of provinces into states had been completed; and long before the peace was signed most commonwealths were conducting their own affairs. But national administration existed in scarcely more than name; and in consequence the people endured the worst form of decentralized control. State legislated against state, refused or neglected to pay its quota of tax, which Congress had neither force nor authority to collect. Credit, national, then local, disappeared. The debt increased. The interest in a bankrupt and impotent central government declined, till Congress often had no quorum for months. The state authorities, evading the only real remedies, firm administration and sound finance, embraced the wild expedients of paper money, land banks, commercial and sumptuary legislation, with such results that Rhode Island soon faced business anarchy, and Massachusetts armed rebellion. Within four years after the peace it seemed that those who had won their independence might fall a prey to anarchy or foreign intervention through the weak folly of those very men who had been most active in the agitation for freedom.
American problems 1783-7
In this crisis the higher intelligence of the community united with its larger interests to provide a remedy; and, as earlier, the elements which rallied to save the nation were those whose leadership had brought success to its arms. In this they were aided by various circumstances. The separation from European influence had strengthened the sense of unity. The consciousness of their vast inheritance beyond the Alleghenies which had fallen into the hands of the central government as the price of the acceptance of the Articles, and the desire to exploit its wealth which led to a great movement toward the west, combined with the distress produced by the financial situation. From a conference, with Washington at its head, to consider the improvement of communication, the pressure to amend the Articles received new strength; and, as a result, seconded by business interests everywhere, Congress authorized the summoning of a constit-
Steps toward a new constitution 1787-8
uent assembly. This meeting at Philadelphia in May, 1787, under the presidency of Washington, wrestled in secret for four months with the great problem of a new organization.
From their deliberations they brought forth not a revision of the Articles but a new instrument of government, the Constitution of the United States. It marked an epoch in the political evolution of the European race. The first and still the most remarkable contribution of the new world to the science of politics, it set up a form of government till then unknown, and till then deemed impossible--an effective union of states so federated as to maintain the rights of both central and local authority without emasculating the one or destroying the other. Confronted by the inextinguishable particularist sentiment of states' rights, the antagonisms between commonwealths of widely varying size, the rivalries of north and south, of free and slave-holding communities, above all, the century-long quarrel between the conflicting views of those believing strong administration the goal of their efforts and those contending for popular government, the framers of the Constitution steered a middle course with eminent ability and success. To their task they brought the fruits of their experience in state affairs and under the defective system of the Articles. They invoked the lessons of the old world, from the days of Greece and Rome to the theories of the English and French philosophers. In particular they adopted the principle of separation of powers set forth so skilfully by Montesquieu, while, at the same time, they leaned heavily on English precedent and practice. Thus, combining old and new, practice and theory, into a novel form of polity, they justified their proud claim of forming "a more perfect Union, establishing Justice, promoting the general Welfare, and securing the Blessings of Liberty for themselves and their Posterity."
The Constitution of the United States
By adroit compromise and ingenious constitutional device, avoiding expression of principles, they used the machinery of check and balance to produce a practical paradox, which, however capable or incapable of logical defense, was to prove a marvel of prudent efficiency. By an initial master-stroke of policy they disarmed the most powerful mutual antagonisms by transferring the source of constituted authority from the states to the people. They frankly divided sovereignty between the central government and the commonwealths, according to the functions to be performed, adjusting the authority of each so as to preserve their respective rights in mutual interdependence. They formally separated the executive, legislative, and judicial departments of government, with powers so defined as to make the permanent domination of any one difficult if not impossible.
Upon the people in their various capacities was conferred the duty and privilege of choosing their rulers. Electors were named by popular vote within the states to select the chief executive. From districts, apportioned according to population within the states, the people elected the members of the popular branch of the national legislature, the House of Representatives. The same electorate, differently districted, returned the members of the state legislatures, who not merely enacted statutes for the separate commonwealths but chose the members of the national upper house, or Senate. Thus was preserved the balance between the large and small units, whose antagonism might otherwise have wrecked the plan. State governments were undisturbed in form or powers within their own boundaries; while those functions best performed collectively were transferred to the central authority. There was created a federal judiciary, its Supreme Court coordinate with Congress and the chief executive, or President. Control of army and navy, customs, excise, diplomatic service, treasury, coinage, and postal service, were reserved to the federal power, and forbidden to the states, as interference in their affairs was denied to the central government. Its character and provisions
Such was the nicely balanced system--typified in the motto of the state it established,
"E Pluribus Unum"
--which now took its place among the constitutional classics of the world, and became the model for later republican experiments. Its compromisies measured at once the wisdom of its framers and the strength of the opposing interests it sought to combine. Its most ardent advocates scarcely dared anticipate its adoption as it stood, or its unaltered continuance, in the face of the many conflicting interests it sought to reconcile. Its most ardent opponents hoped to modify or destroy it before the nine states whose assent was necessary to its adoption had sanctioned it. Necessary and equitable as it was, the advocates of wider states' rights and greater popular liberties were not prepared to yield their convictions without a struggle. Every element of disorder helped their cause. As often happens in such a contingency, the hopes and fears of neither side were destined to be fully realized. From the ensuing conflict over adoption the body of the instrument emerged unaltered; but scores of amendments were proposed, and of these ten finally became the price of its acceptance by the states. They formed a bill of rights securing guarantees not mentioned in the document itself. Thus were established free speech and religious liberty, the privileges of assembly and petition, right to bear arms, and freedom from the quartering of soldiers upon the people in time of peace, security against unwarranted search, speedy and public jury trial; safeguards against excessive bail, prolonged imprisonment without judicial hearing, cruel or unnecessary punishment. In short, the old provisions of English protection to the individual against the executive, embraced in documents from Magna Charta to the Bill of Rights, were thus ensured.
Its adoption 1789
With these additions the assent of the states necessary to adoption was secured, and the new constitution took its place among the political systems of the world. The great general who had led the armies of the colonists to victory became, not a dictator, but the elected president of a real self-governing community. Of the three stages of any revolution, the agitation which precedes appeal to force; the clash of arms; and the formation of a new organization to replace the old; the third was safely past. With the adoption of the Constitution the American Revolution was now complete.
The establishment of the United States was the end of a long development, the climax of two powerful movements which had been at work for centuries. The one was the evolution of self-government, the other the territorial expansion of
Importance of the establishment of the United States
the European race in lands beyond the sea. It was not merely that this was the first child of Europe to break away to independence. In so doing it was the first of European societies to make on a great scale the most crucial experiment on which any people can embark, that of ruling themselves. Nor was the spirit which found expression in the American Revolution confined to the new world or to the realm of politics. In a far truer sense than even the astute Prussian monarch dreamed, it was at once a part of the great European movement then on foot in almost every department of human endeavor, and an incentive to still further change. During the years of armed conflict in America at least four principal departments of European activity, politics and economic thought, colonial affairs and industry, were revolutionized. Now at the very moment when the constitution which gave the new nation its final form was adopted, the spirit which had informed the struggle that gave it birth was transferred to the oldest of continental monarchies, there to inaugurate a new era of political development in the old world.
It has been observed that, among the various activities of the enlightened despots which distinguished the Age of the American Revolution, the efforts of Joseph II to unify his territory had brought his people of the Austrian Netherlands to the threshold of revolt. The Belgian discontent was but the prelude to a greater drama on which the curtain was about to rise. At the moment that England drifted into war with her American colonies there had come to the throne of France the amiable and well-intentioned youth, Louis XVI. Seldom had ruler faced a more dubious heritage. The vast debt laid on the nation by Louis XIV's war and diplomacy, increasing through the century by the ambitions of his weaker successors, by maladministration and courtly extravagances, was the eighth wonder of the world of politics. From taxation the clergy and nobility were exempt; from it they drew the pensions and rewards reserved for them alone; from it they sucked the life-blood of the unprivileged. With every disposition to reform, the king had found his best endeavors thwarted by the noble courtiers and the army of officials,
The situation of France 1774
as well as by the obstinate pride and extravagance of his wife, the Austrian archduchess, Marie Antoinette. It was in vain that the great administrator of the Limousin, Turgot, who had made that unpromising province flourish, was summoned to perform the same miracle in national affairs. It was no less in vain the Genevese banker, Necker, was called to reconstruct finance. Both failed before the intrenched privilege of court and officials; and the incompetents who succeeded them plunged France into the final stages of insolvency. In this crisis the king, like Charles I of England a century and a half before, when faced by a similar situation, summoned the great nobles and clergy to an Assembly of Notables. Filled with the spirit of class privilege, unmindful of the signs on every hand, this body found no remedy; and with reluctant voice the government was compelled to summon the States-General, which, since its last meeting under Louis XIII a hundred and seventy-five years before, had taken no part in the affairs of France. 1774-6
The Notables had assembled in the same year that the American constitutional convention framed its great document. In the very days that the assent of the states necessary to adoption was being obtained there came together at Versailles the body which was to determine the destinies of France, and in no small degree of Europe itself. It was significant that it should meet in that nation where the old order had reached the zenith of its power, and so fully demonstrated its incompetence; and where, at the same time, the theories of the newer school of thought had taken deepest root. In it the irresistible doctrines of Montesquieu and Rousseau came face to face with the immovable pretensions of the old régime, the Rights of Man with ancient forms and the prescriptive authority of privilege. On the side of the former were now ranged the forces of the new world of affairs and thought; the nobles who had fought for liberty in the western world; the lawyers who had argued its doctrines in the debating clubs of Paris and provincial capitals; the scientists who had long since defied the precedent and authority of the past in search of truth. Even foreigners who
The assembly of the States General 5 May 1789
with voice or pen had been enlisted on the same side, stood finally arrayed against the champions of the old régime. For that régime it was the beginning of the end; its last defenses were already being attacked by forces inspired by the same doctrines which had sapped those defenses. Against oncoming millions bred to new ways of thought, against the progress of that thought itself, not all the weight of long-established authority, the awe of immemorial royal and aristocratic supremacy, the power of entrenched inequality, sufficed to protect its lessening defenders. And it was a symbol of the time and the event that marshaled in the ranks of the States-General beside the hero of America, Lafayette, the victim of the Bastille, Mirabeau. With the free-thinking Abbé Sièyes were found the chemist Lavoisier, Bailly, the royal astronomer, Lamarck, the great biologist, and Thomas Paine, the agnostic pamphleteer of the Americans. The last meeting of the States-General was, in brief, no mere political phenomenon. It marked not only the end of an outworn system of government and the beginning of new things as yet untried and scarcely realized in many different fields. It marked no less a crisis in the world of thought; it included among its numbers many exponents of the world's progress in many different lines; and though it took the form of politics, it symbolized the rapidly altering basis of a complex and an increasingly intelligent society.
The conflict of forces
The French Revolution, even more than the independence of America, typified the profound change which had come over European society in the preceding three centuries--a change but imperfectly described by the mere enumeration of isolated events or movements. The mediæval period had been dominated by three powers, the crown, the church, and the nobility. In it that element we know generically as "business," which so greatly affects the life of to-day, played but a minor part. In it the concerns of intellect, the development of devices to extend man's capacity, much less the infinite complex which goes to make up what we call culture, were relatively neglected, rudimentary, or unknown. Had royal, clerical, and aristocratic dominance continued, it is not prob- able that this situation would have greatly changed. The number of authors, inventors, scientists, philosophers, and discoverers in those ranks was not large; the quality was even less conspicuous. Whatever those classes contributed to government and the stability of society; however their patronage assisted the advancement of learning and the progress of the arts; they made little direct addition either to knowledge or capacity.
That was pre-eminently the work of what we have come to know as the middle class. This class created a new basis of life and thought. It wrote books, made discoveries in science, produced inventions, composed music, created new styles in architecture, painted pictures, set up new philosophies, investigated the past, explored and exploited the lands beyond the sea, founded new communions, and set commerce and industry among the chief concerns of mankind. From its efforts emerged a new social order. Only in one direction, by the end of the eighteenth century, this middle class or bourgeoisie had made but little progress in their conquest of the affairs of life. Save for the so-called Anglo-Saxon countries, England and America, they had but little voice in those concerns which go under the name of politics. And if there is one generalization more striking than all others in this long history of the creation of a new world of men, it is that the Age of Revolution, which now began in the new world and the old, is, in this view, only the extension of the activities of this class into the realm of politics. They had created a new society, largely in their own image; they were now about to enter upon its government. The royal, clerical, and aristocratic forces had exhausted their mandate in many fields. They were now about to lose control of their last stronghold, the conduct of public affairs. The story of the so-called democratic movements which make up so large a part of the political history of the ensuing century is the narrative of the efforts of this middle class to secure control of the society which they had brought forth. In that conflict the American Revolution had already played its part. With the meeting of the French States-General the struggle was transferred to Europe in a far more definite form. And though the issue was long undetermined, though the hold of the traditional masters of the state has even yet not been wholly shaken off; it is apparent that the classes which have made the world what it is to-day are now the dominant factors in its affairs.
Four years from that eventful 5th of May the raw levies of a republican France faced the veteran arms of more than half the rulers of Europe, outraged by the execution of the French monarch and trembling for the loyalty of their own subjects in the face of a new crusade "waged on governments in behalf of peoples" by the Jacobin apostles of liberty, equality, and fraternity. These had flung into the arena as their gage of battle the head of a king, and by a reign of terror held down their enemies at home. In such hands and under such bloody auspices did Revolution make its entry into the affairs of Europe, and at her summons the whole world of forces which had been developing through the preceding centuries roused to new life. With that there began a new age of European history.
The French Revolution 1789-
The great circle of events which had begun nearly four centuries earlier with the unfolding of the classical civilization, and the discovery of the lands outside Europe, was now complete. Every continent now held a European population; and Europe was now the dominating factor in worldpolitics. The realm of nature had begun to yield its secrets to the use of man. Art, letters, and invention had increased his capacity to express himself; the progress of knowledge and thought had enormously developed his range of ideas, and his ability to realize them. His physical comfort had grown in like proportion; and he had reached heights in nearly every field of human endeavor beyond the greatest achievements of the imagination five centuries before. He was possessed of the two greatest instruments which science and politics had been able to devise, the steam-engine and popular government. With them he was prepared to enter upon a new social and industrial inheritance. And, however far he fell short of that great and intangible ideal toward which he strove, whatever tremendous problems still confronted him, as they must confront every succeeding generation, his feet were set upon new paths, his eyes looked forward to new goals, from which there was to be no turning back.
The Expansion of Europe was by no means at an end. But with the beginning of the Age of Revolution and the Age of Steam men had attained the boundaries of that world toward which they had been striving for four hundred years. That realm is still far from being fully explored or conquered--and it may never be; but with the impulse of great achievement and the insatiable thirst for knowledge and power engendered by long striving and success, men had developed that spirit and those qualities to which no undertaking seemed too great, no way too long. And this, in the last resolution of events, remains the ultimate result of those activities which brought them to the borders of the promised land, "strong in will to strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield," the inextinguishable desire to achieve new triumphs in new fields, and the capacity to accomplish them.
INTRODUCTION AND CHAPTER I
It is obviously impossible to provide such a work as this with a bibliography which is in any sense exhaustive, without an inordinate use of space. The following lists include, therefore, only the titles of such books as se0em useful for more extensive treatment of particular subjects or periods, and are fairly accessible to the average reader or student. More minute bibliographies of the principal countries involved are to be found among the following:--
MONOD, Bibliographie de l'histoire de France ( 1888). DAHLMANN- WAITZ , Quellenkunde der deutschen Geschichte ( 8 ed., 1912). NIJ- HOFF , Biblioteca Historico-Nederlandica ( 1898-99). HIDALGO, Diccionario general de Bibliografia Española ( 1862-81). DE BRITO ARANHA, Diccionario bibliographico Portuguez ( 1858, etc.). For England there is no such compilation, but the bibliographies at the end of the several volumes of HUNT and POOLE'S Political History of England, 12 vols., ( 1912), and OMAN'S History of England, 6 vols., London ( 1912), are good. There is a good specialized bibliography in TRAILL, Social England ( 1895, etc.). For the United States, the bibliographies in the American Nation series are especially useful. The principal bibliography proper is the collection of CHANNING, HART, and TURNER, Guide to the Study of American History ( 1912); supplemented by the annual Writings on American History. See also LARNED, Literature of American History ( 1902). See also H. PIRENNE, Bibliographie de l'Histoire de Belgique ( 2 ed., 1902); and R. ALTAMIRA Y CREVEA, Historia de España y de la civilización española, vol. iv., ( 1911). To these may be added the Jahresberichte der Geschichtswissenschaft ( 1878, etc.) and the general reviews in the historical periodicals, especially in the Revue Historique.
It should perhaps be added that the printed catalogue of the British Museum is the most comprehensive accessible book-list; that of the London Library ( last ed., 1914) the most generally useful; while the printed cards issued to subscribers or purchasers by the Library of Congress are the most convenient sources of general bibliography.
For encyclopædic accounts of the period here treated, LAVISSE ET RAMBAUD , Histoire Générale ( 1895) and the Cambridge Modern History ( 1902, etc.) offer the most comprehensive and satisfactory accounts. Each is accompanied by book-lists, of which the latter is by far the fullest yet compiled for European history in general. There is no corresponding work in German, since the older ONCKEN'S Allgemeine Geschichte in Einzeldarstellungen, besides being now somewhat antiquated, is arranged on the plan of treating each country separately. For those who wish brief and popular accounts of various countries in English, the Stories of the Nations series offers a fairly complete, though very unequal, collection of sketches.
The general histories of the world, which are usually, like the works noted above, of the syndicate or co-operative type, are none of them beyond criticism. The Historians' History of the World, 25 vols., ( 1908) is a compilation from the writings of a great number and variety of historical writers, connected by running accounts from editorial pens. It contains a considerable bibliography, often of value. HELMOLT'S History of the World, available in an English translation from the German original, with an introductory essay by Lord Bryce ( 1901) is a curious and interesting attempt to write history from an anthropo-geographical standpoint, and deserves consideration as such. The History of all Nations, ed. J. H. WRIGHT ( 1902-05), is a useful adaptation and condensation of the Oncken series.
There are, besides these, a number of encyclopædias and biographical dictionaries, many of which are extremely valuable both in content and bibliography. The most recent, and in many respects the best, is the eleventh edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, in which the bibliographies are a notable feature. The French Grande Encyclopædie; the German BROCKHAUS Konversations Lexikon, though older, are still valuable. Besides these still, the new Everyman's Encyclopædia, the New International Cyclopædia, and the Century Dictionary of Names and Places each has its own merit for quick and ready reference.
The greatest of biographical publications is the English Dictionary of National Biography, which includes a vast amount of bibliographical material in addition to its articles, which are of singularly high and uniform merit. In German the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, and in French the Nouvelle Biographie Générale of HOEFER ( 1857-66); and the Biographie Universelle of MICHAUD ( 1854-65) are useful. The Austrian Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich of WURZBACH ( 1856-91), and for the Netherlands, VAN DER AA'S Biographisch Woordenboek der Nederlanden and MOLHUYSEN and BLOK, Nieuw Nederlandsch Biografisch Woordenboek ( 1911-14) are of value, as is also the Biographie Nationale de Belgique--which extends, however, only to "Ryt." ( 1866-1910).
There are a number of manuals of dates and events which may be found of use in quick reference. Of these the chief is PLOETZ, Epitome of History, translated into English by TILLINGHAST, and enriched with American sections by CHANNING. PUTNAM'S Tabular Views of Universal History is the most recent and one of the best of these works, and may be supplemented by HASSALL'S European History 476-1871. The great French publication, L'Art de Vérifter les Dates des Faits Historiques, is invaluable but extends only to the first quarter of the nineteenth century. See also STOKVIS, Manuel d'histoire de généalogie et de chronologie des tous les états du globe, 3 vols., ( 1888-93).
In such a view of history as is here presented, historical geography is an essential; and the past generation has seen the appearance of many valuable contributions to this subject. The older works of DROYSEN and of SPRUNER may be supplemented by those of POOLE and of SCHRADER, and by the more recent geographical volume prepared to accompany the Cambridge Modern History. This last, like POOLE and
SCHRADER, includes an interesting running account of the changes noted on the maps. Among the lesser and more easily accessible atlases, designed for school use but of much wider utility, may be noted those of PUTZGER, DOW, MUIR, and SHEPHERD. Of these the last is the most comprehensive and in many ways the most useful. DOW and SHEPHERD are particularly well indexed, which makes them especially valuable. No single historical atlas contains every possible desirable map; for some purposes the older publications of GARDINER and even COLBECK may be found to contain material not accessible in later publications. Finally, no such list would be complete without mention of the great work of NORDENSKIÖLD, the Facsimile Atlas ( 1889), and the Periplus ( 1897), which contain not only magnificent reproductions of fifteenth and sixteenth century maps but a history of early cartography. With these may be mentioned KRETSCHMER'S Entdeckung Amerika's ( 1892) and the contributions made by Professor E. L. STEVENSON to early cartography. And, though it is confined to the Americas, no account of the principal works in this field could omit WINSOR'S Narrative and Critical History of America ( 1886-89), which is replete with geographical and bibliographical, as well as historical, data for the entire period here considered.
There remain to be noted some of the more useful works covering various topics over the whole period between the fifteenth and the nineteenth centuries. In the field of art there are a number of good accounts, of which that of MUTHER, now available in English, is the most readable popular book on the subject of painting. Of architecture the same cannot be said. Perhaps the work of JAMES FERGUSON ( 1873), though it is now forty years old, is as good as any handbook; though the works of VIOLLET-LE-DUC are at once entertaining and instructive from a historical standpoint; while STURGIS' History of Architecture is of considerable value. See especially A. MICHEL, Histoire de l'art, 5 vols., ( 1905-12), and the convenient sketch of S. REINACH.
Literature is far more fortunate, and every European nation boasts a history of its literature, though it would be impossible to enumerate them here, for almost every nation has more than one. Perhaps the most easily accessible work in English on the general subject is the series on the Periods of European Literature under the editorship of Professor SAINTSBURY. The Cambridge History of English Literature, the series entitled Les grands écrivains de la France, and BROCKHAUS, Bibliothek der deutschen National-Litteratur in 18-19 Jahrhundert, are useful.
Education is blessed with as great a literature as literature itself so far as the individual countries are concerned, and perhaps even more liberally so far as the general history and aspects of the subject are concerned. A full account of the works on the subject may be found in W. S. MONROE'S Bibliography of Education ( 1897); a briefer, more analytical summary is CUBBERLEY'S Syllabus of Lectures on the History of Education; and fairly complete accounts of most educational activities in J. M. BALDWIN, Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, 3 vols., ( 1901-05). A convenient general account is P. MONROE 'S text-book on the History of Education ( 1905); see, also, his Cyclopædia of Education, which contains much bibliographical material.
See also B. RAND, Bibliography of Philosophy, Psychology, etc., 3 vols., 1905; in BALDWIN as above; and F. UBERWEG, Grundriss der. Geschichte der Philosophie ( 1868-98); PAULSEN, Gesckichte der Gelehrten Unterrichts.
The history of scholarship falls far short of that of education in the number though not in the quality of the works on the subject. J. E. SANDY 'S History of Classical Scholarship, ii., Renaissance, iii., 1908, covers the modern period ably and thoroughly. History is treated with equal fullness in FUETER, Geschichte der neueren Historiographie ( 1911), revised for the French translation, while there is a large variety of monographs upon special subjects, primarily scholarly, but reckoned as educational, noted in the bibliographies in the latter field.
The number of books on the social and economic development of Europe is legion, and it is difficult to choose among them. The great German work of SCHMOLLER, Grundriss der allgemeinen Volkswirthschaftslehre ( 1901-04); PALGRAVE'S Dictionary of Political Economy ( 1894-99); CUNNINGHAM'S Essay on Western Civilization in its economic aspects ( 1898-1900); DAY'S History of Commerce; and BUCHER'S Entstehung der Volkswirthschaft ( 1901) translated as Industrial Evolution, may be taken as illustrations of the various types. See also W. R. SHEPHERD'S Expansion of Europe, 1919, reprinted from the Political Science Quarterly. Similarly in the field of colonization there is a multitude of books on almost every conceivable phase of expansion. In English the work of MORRIS is perhaps the most popular though not a highly scientific work. In German the most considerable book is ZIMMERMANN'S Die Europäischen Kolonien ( 1896). In French. LEROY-BEAULIEU'S De la Colonisation chez les Peuples modernes ( 1908) is of great value. Probably the most satisfactory account, however, is LANNOY and VAN DER LINDEN'S L'Expansion Coloniale des Peuples Européens, of which, however, but two volumes have appeared. See also P. HINNEBERG, Die Kultur der Gegenwart, a great series covering nearly all departments of human activity, and contributions in many fields ( 1905, etc.). See in it W. LEXIS, Allgemeine Volkswirthschaftslehre, etc., ( 1910). To this should be added L. ELSTER, Wörterbuch der Volkswirthschaft ( 1898); KONRAD, ELSTER, LEXIS, etc., Handwörterbuch der Staatswissenschaften (7 vols., 1898-1901).
The history of science remains to be written in such fullness and with such detail as that of the political or even the cultural activities of modern Europe. There is as yet no adequate history of invention. The old book of BEEKMAN on the subject is a misnamed collection of curious facts. URE'S Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines ( 1843) contains much information, but is not a history. The most recent and by far the most valuable compilation is DARMSTAEDTER'S Handbuch zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaft und der Technik ( 1908), but it is a chronological table and not in any sense a history. Probably the most valuable single addition to the study of the history of science and invention in recent years is comprised in the bibliographies compiled under the auspices of the John Crerar Library by A. G. S. JOSEPHSON ( 1911-15). The chief book on the history of science is MERZ, Geschichte der Naturwissenschaft, but there are two recent books: the one by WILLIAM LIBBY ( 1917), the other by W. T. SEDGWICK and H.
W. TYLER ( 1917). There should perhaps be added here besides the various work of BUCKLE, DRAPER, LAMPRECHT, etc., on the development of European civilization; A. D. WHITE, History of the Warfare of Science and Theology ( 1910). But in spite of the excellences of these volumes the subject must be pursued in detail in the accounts of the various separate sciences. In medicine the best books for this period are those of GARRISON, History of Medicine ( 1914), and J. H. BAAS, Geschichte der Medizin ( 1876), Eng. tr., though the more recent volume of BUCK has some interesting material for the Renaissance in its final chapters. See also T. PUSCHMANN (ed.), Handbuch der Geschichte der Medizin ( 1902-05). Probably the most accessible account of the progress of biology is to be found in LOCY'S Biology and its Makers ( 1908), which may profitably be compared with GARRISON. In chemistry the work of VON MEYER, translated by MCGOWAN ( 1906), is the most authoritative and exhaustive. The most easily available popular history is that of VENABLE ( 1894). The standard history of physics is GERLAND'S Geschichte der Physik ( 1913). There is no adequate account in English. Mathematics has a large historical literature. Among its numerous titles in English may be noted CAJORI'S History of Elementary Mathematics ( 1896) and BEMAN and SMITH'S translation of FIENK'S Geschichte der Elementar-Mathematik ( 1905), under the title Brief History of Mathematics, while among more extensive treatises the chief is that of CANTOR. Three recent popular books on astronomy are Sir OLIVER LODGE'S Pioneers of Science ( 1893); W. W. BRYANT 'S History of Astronomy ( 1907); and G. FORBES' History of Astronomy ( 1909), the last in PUTMAN'S History of the Sciences. See also F. DANNEMANN, Grundriss einer Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften, 2 vols., ( 2 ed., 1902), and MERZ.
The use of explosives and the art of war have not been very scientifically or exhaustively treated in comparison with many subjects here enumerated. KOHLER'S Die modernen Kriegswaffen, 2 vols., ( 18971900); HIME'S Gunpowder and Ammunition ( 1904); WEISS' Waffenkunde, 3 vols., ( 1908-99) may be noted as more specifically technical works. See, also, W. W. GREENER, The Gun and its Development, and T. F. FREMANTLE, The Book of the Rifle. VIOLLET-LE-DUC'S Annals of a Fortress is an entertaining volume. Admiral MAHAN'S Influence of Sea-Power in History is the classic work on the importance of naval strength. The contributions of successive commanders to the art of war may best be studied in the biographies of individuals, which are fairly numerous and usually of value.
The literature of church history is too vast to receive adequate notice here. Perhaps the best brief book-list is to be found in the printed Catalogue of the London Library ( last ed., 1915); the fullest bibliography in the Catholic Encyclopædia ( 1907-12), which is the most valuable accessible source for the subject in general. There are also excellent articles and bibliographies in the Realencyclopaedie für Protestantische Theologie und Kirche ( 1896-1913). For the history of the Papacy, see especially those by M. CREIGHTON ( 1899-1901); L. RANKE ( 1885); and L. PASTOR ( 1912). All of these are available in English editions of the dates mentioned, and though each covers a somewhat different field, together they form a comprehensive account for most of the period here treated.
For the Church proper, see W. MOELLER, History of the Christian Church, tr. J. H. FREESE ( 1893-1900); P. SCHAFF, History of the Christian Church, and G. P. FISHER, History of the Christian Church ( 1887). These are written from the Protestant standpoint. The principal Catholic works on the subject are those of J. ALZOG, Manual of Universal Church History, (tr. 1903); Cardinal Hergenröther, revised by J. P. KIRSCH (German only) and F. X. VON FUNK ( 1911). For the period of the Reformation there is a useful compilation by B. J. KIDD, Documents Illustrative of the Continental Reformation ( 1911). See, also, the Dictionnaire de Theologic Catholique ( 1904).
GENERAL NOTE. --It is to be observed in the following brief book-lists that no reference is ordinarily made to the works included in the general list above, which may be consulted for many of the subjects comprised in the following chapters.
CHAPTER II - THE RENAISSANCE
Probably the best brief general account in English of the Renaissance remains the article, under that head, by J. A. SYMONDS in the Encyclopædia Britannica. His larger work, The Renaissance in Italy, 7 vols., and the abridgment of it under the title A Short History of the Renaissance in Italy, are standard accounts of that part of the movement. They may be supplemented by BURCKHARDT'S Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien, which is available in an English translation. The most recent summary of the entire movement is HULME'S Renaissance and Reformation ( 1915). The various volumes of MUNTZ on the Renaissance in Italy and France, and Art during the Renaissance, are the standard works in French. There are no easily accessible accounts of the influence of the Renaissance movement on England, Germany, and the Netherlands comparable to these. SEEBOHM'S Era of the Protestant Revolution, and his Oxford Reformers, contain a good deal of information in a popular form relating to the English Renaissance leaders; while the histories of the English universities, like MULLINGER'S History of the University of Cambridge, in particular, RASHDALL'S Universities of Europe during the Middle Ages, and the biographies of Erasmus, Melanchthon, and their fellows, throw much light on this period. One should perhaps note also SANDYS' History of Classical Scholarship and the biographies of the humanists, from Petrarch through Bracciolini to the members of the Florentine Academy, as well as the Renaissance studies of WALTER PATER. EMERTON'S Erasmus ( 1899); STRAUSS' Ulrich von Hutten (translated, 1874); STOKE'S edition of The Letters of Obscure Men ( 1909); the various biographies of Savonarola; VASARI'S Lives of the Painters. See also the works of P. VILLARI, especially his studies of Machiavelli and his times, Savonarola, etc.,--available in English translations; GOOCH, Annals of Politics and Culture; SMITH'S Erasmus. See the Cambridge Modern History, vol. I, for further bibliography. For the invention of printing, see DE, VINNE'S work on that subject and his Notable Printers of Italy during the Fifteenth Century ( 1910).
The best recent summary of the controversy over the invention of printing is to be found under the heading Typography in the last edition of the Britannica; and a good brief bibliography under the heading Gutenberg. For the invention of gunpowder, see HIME, above. For the compass, see BEAZLEY, Dawn of Modern Geography ( 1897), and the brief account in JACOBS' Story of Geographical Discovery ( 1906), with the article and illustrations in NORDENSKIOLD quoted above. In general, these same sources may be consulted for the story of early cartography, with those mentioned among the general bibliography. One of the most scholarly and readable of books in this field is Colonel YULE'S edition of "Marco Polo's Travels" ( 1871, etc.) and his Cathay and the Way Thither ( 1866). JACOBS' Story of Geographical Discovery is the best work of its size on the general subject. See also the various works of J. KOHL on his travels in many lands during the nineteenth century--especially useful in regard to Russia for earlier periods. The latter are available in English. RUGE Geschichte des Zeitalters der Entdeckungen (Oncken series, 1881) is good, and the great literature arising from the controversy over Columbus, q.v., contains much material on the subject of exploration and cartography prior to his time. JOHNSTON'S History of the Colonization of Africa by Alien Races ( 1899) contains some slight account of the earlier period, as does R. BROWN'S Story of Africa, 4 vols., ( 1894-95). In particular a number of the publications of the Hakluyt Society, such as BEAZLEY'S editions of Carpini, Rubruquis, etc., are of the utmost value and interest to the early history of geography and exploration. For the bibliography of the Renaissance as well as the Middle Ages, see also L. J. PAETOW, Guide to the Study of Mediæval History (Univ. of California, 1917).
CHAPTER III - THE BEGINNING OF EXPANSION
For the Age of Prince Henry the Navigator and for his achievements, probably the best brief account is the biography by C. R. BEAZLEY ( 1890), though the earlier work of R. H. MAJOR is not without merit. DANVERS' The Portuguese in India ( 1894) is a very useful book, as is H. MORSE STEPHENS' Story of Portugal ( 1891). In this connection may be noted the various publications of the Hakluyt Society and of the Geographical Society relating to early Portuguese activities along the African coast. For Behaim, see RAVENSTEIN'S Martin de Bohemia ( 1900) and various articles in the Geographical Journal. For Vasco da Gama the best account is RAVENSTEIN'S Vasco da Gama's First Voyage ( Hakluyt Society, 1898), and CORREA'S Three Voyages of da Gama (same, 1868). Beside the work of K. G. JAYNE on Vasco da Gama and his Successors ( 1910), see J. P. OLIVEIRO MARTINS' The Golden Age of Prince Henry the Navigator, trans. with notes, etc., ( 1914).
The Columbus literature is endless. Probably the best of the more recent popular accounts which takes cognizance of the results of the long controversy is F. YOUNG'S Christopher Columbus and the New World of his Discovery, 3 ed., ( 1912). In general the various publications of HENRI HARRISSE, especially Christophe Colomb ( 1892), John Cabot ( 1896), and The Discovery of North America ( 1892), and those of HENRI VIGNAUD, in particular his Histoire Critique de la Grande Entreprise de Christophe Colombe, 2 vols., ( 1911), are most notable contributions to the argument. E. G. BOURNE'S Spain in America ( 1904) and his contributions to the general subject of Columbus and the discoveries are also of the greatest value.
CHAPTER IV - THE DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL STATES
The best scholarly account of the French monarchy and the relations between France and England during the fifteenth century is to be found in LAVISSE, Histoire de France, a co-operative history which is of the first rank not only for this but for succeeding periods. See also H. HAUSER, Les sources de l'Histoire de France, 1494-1610 ( 1906-12). There is no equally good account in English, the work of KITCHIN being antiquated, dull, and almost entirely political. English history during the fifteenth century is exhaustively treated in VICKERS' England in the Later Middle Ages; in GAIRDNER, The Houses of Lancaster and York ( 1874, etc.), and in the painstaking though not very readable work of RAMSAY, Lancaster and York ( 1892). The early Tudor period has been most ably handled by H. A. L. FISHER in the Hunt and Poole series, 1906. In this period, as throughout H. D. TRAILL Social England, especially in its illustrated form; and A. F. POLLARD'S Factors in Modern History, are most useful and interesting. CUNNINGHAM's English Industry and Commerce is also invaluable.
For Spanish history in the fifteenth century the older work of PRESCOTT, Ferdinand and Isabella, is still as readable as ever, but it has in some measure been superseded on the scholarly side by other works. Of these perhaps the most accessible, though not of much value, is that of U. R. BURKE, A History of Spain to the Death of Ferdinand, edited by M. A. S. HUME ( 1900). G. DIERCK'S Geschichte Spaniens ( 1895-96) is much better. R. B. MERRIMAN'S history of the Rise of the Spanish Empire in the Old World and the New, of which the first two volumes now in press carry the story to 1516, will be still better for this period. For Portugal, the best available work is H. M. STEPHENS' Story of Portugal in the Stories of the Nations series. The great collection of documents relating to Spanish history, that Of NAVARRETE and his collaborators ( 1842-92) is especially valuable for a somewhat later period. There is no similar collection available for Portugal.
For Germany and the Empire perhaps the best recent history available in English is the popular work of JANSSEN, though it leaves much to be desired. E. F. HENDERSON'S History of Germany ( 1906) is a good popular account. A more detailed study of German history in the fifteenth century is A. BACHMANN'S Deutsche Reichsgeschichte im Zeitalter Friedrichs III u. Maximilians I ( 1884-94); and, still more detailed, that of K. KASER, Deutsche Geachichte zur Zeit Maximilians I ( 1912). Beside these the work of F. KRONES, Handbuch der Geachichte Oesterreichs ( 1876-79), and RANKE'S History of the Latin and Teutonic Nations (1494-1519), translated, in Bohn Library (1915), are to be noted.
For Russia there are available the translation of A. RAMBAUD'S History of Russia ( 1879), and W. R. A. MORFILL'S Russia, in the Stories of the Nations series, with a history of Poland by the same author, in the same series. More recent and in some respects more satisfactory is Slavonic Europe by R. N. BAIN ( 1908) and KLIUCHEVSKY 'S History of Russia (translation, 1911-13). There is no very satisfactory history of Turkey in English; J. VON HAMMER BURGSTALL (usually cited as HAMMER), Geschichte des Osmanischen Reichs, 10 vols., 2 ed., ( 1840) is the basis of most of them. Perhaps the volume of S. LANE POOLE, in the Stories of the Nations series ( 1888), is the most easily accessible account. The most recent work in German is that of N. JORGA, Geschichte des Osmanischen Reichs, 5 vols., ( 1908-13).
For Hungary there is accessible C. M. KNATCHBULL-HUGESSEN'S Political Evolution of the Hungarian Nation, 2 vols., ( 1908); for the Medici, G. F. YOUNG'S The Medici, 2 vols., ( 1909), and ARMSTRONG'S Lorenzo de Medici ( 1897); for Venice, H. F. BROWN'S translation of MOLMENTI'S Venice, 6 vols., ( 1906-08); for the Papacy, L. PASTOR, Geschichte der Päpste, 6 vols., ( 1886-1913), Eng. tr. by ANTROBUS and KERR (1891-1912) for Russia, K. WALISZEWSKIE'S Ivan le Terrible ( 1904).
CHAPTER V - EUROPEAN POLITICS. 1492-1521
For the period of the Italian wars, in addition to the works enumerated in the preceding sections, reference may be made to H. F. DELABORDE 'S Expédition de Charles VIII en Italie ( 1888) and L. G. PELISSIER 'S Louis XII et Ludovic Sforza ( 1896). For Francis I, see the bibliographies in LAVISSE, and BOURILLY in Revue d'Histoire Moderne et Contemporaine, vol. iv., ( 1902-03). For Charles V, the most accessible work is that of E. ARMSTRONG, Charles the Fifth ( 1902), and the most elaborate that of H. BAUMGARTEN, Karl der Fünfte, 3 vols., to 1539 ( 1885-92). For the rivalry between these two monarchs see the detailed study of MIGNET, La Rivalité de François I et Charles Quint, 2 vols., 2 ed., ( 1875). The older work of ROBERTSON, Charles V, is still worth reading. There is a good brief and general account, clear and well organized, of the politics of this whole period, in A. H. JOHNSON , Europe in the Sixteenth Century, 2 ed., ( 1898). See also, especially for the fifteenth century, E. EMERTON, The Beginnings of Modern Europe ( 1917).
For England under Henry VIII, see BREWER'S The Reign of Henry VIII, 2 vols., ( 1884); A. F. POLLARD'S Henry VIII ( 1902); RANKE'S English History, mainly in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, a translation ( 1875); H. A. L. FISHER'S History of England, 1485-1547, as above; and for the more picturesque side of the reign, the various studies of J. A. FROUDE--especially his History of England from the Fall of Wolsey ( 1870-72). For a more general account, see W. BUSCH, England unter die Tudors ( 1892), Eng. tr. by A. M. TODD, introd. by J. GAIRDNER ( 1895).
For Spain, the Netherlands, and the Empire, see the lives of Charles V, as above; BLOK'S History of the People of the Netherlands, a translation ( 1900, etc.); M. A. S. HUME'S Spain, its Greatness and Decay, 1479-1788 ( 1898)--better for the later part; H. PIRENNE, Histoire de Belgique--also in German in Heeren-Ukert series-- ( 1899-1907); the works of PRESCOTT, now somewhat out of date but still readable and informing; RANKE'S Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Reformation ( 1882), and C. EGELHAAF'S work under the same title ( 1893). K. HÄBLER 'S Geschichte Spaniens unter den Habsburgen ( 1907) includes much new material of interest, though it must be accepted with caution.
For Italy in this period, see R. MAULDE LA CLAVIÈRE'S La Diplomatie au 'temps de Machiavel, 3 vols., ( 1892-93); RANKE'S History of the Popes, translated in Bohn Library ( 1913); M. CREIGHTON'S History of the Papacy during the Reformation, 6 vols., ( 1882); W. ROSCOE'S Life and Pontificate of Leo X, 4 vols., 5 ed., ( 1846); and SYMONDS' and PASTOR'S works, as noted above.
CHAPTER VI - SPAIN AND PORTUGAL. 1498-1521
For the early history of Spanish America, its organization and exploitation, there are a number of important works covering special fields. The older book of Sir A. HELPS, The Spanish Conquest of America, though it has appeared in a new edition ( 1900-04) and contains much excellent material, is at once discursive and biassed. PRESCOTT 'S Conquest of Mexico and Conquest of Peru retain their picturesque value; but his conclusions, like those of HELPS, must be greatly modified by more recent investigation. Probably the best account of Spanish activities in America is that of E. G. BOURNE, Spain in America ( 1904). W. ROSCHER'S The Spanish Colonial System, an extract from his larger work translated by E. G. BOURNE ( 1904), is excellent. W. R. SHEPHERD 'S Latin America ( 1914) is a good slight sketch, and the volumes of B. MOSES on Spanish administration are worthy of attention. For the conquests, F. A. MACNUTT'S "Life of Cortes" ( 1909), his edition of Cortes' Letters ( 1908), and the "Historia de la Conquista de Mejico" of BERNARDO DIAZ DEL CASTILLO (1632), available in translation, afford the beat picture of Cortes' adventure. To these may be added the works of the Spanish historians: OVIEDO, Historia General y Natural de las Indias, 4 vols., ( 1851-55), and HERRARA, Historia General de las Indias ( 1828-30), and NAVARRETE. For the entire subject reference should be made to the monumental work of H. H. BANCROFT, The Native Races of the Pacific States, 5 vols., ( 1874-76), and to his History of the Pacific States, 21 vols., ( 1882-90), including Central America, 3 vols., ( 1885-87). See also C. LUMMIS, Spanish Pioneers.
For Magellan and Spanish activities in the East the chief sources are the narrative of PIGAFETTA printed in RAMUSIO'S collection of travels, 1563-74, many of which, together with that of an unknown Portuguese and many others relating to this subject, are available in the Hakluyt Society publications. A great amount of original material on this and kindred subjects is contained in the admirable work of BLAIR and ROBERTSON, The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898, 53 vols., ( 1903-07). The best life of Magellan is that of GUILLEMARD ( 1891).
For the Portuguese in Africa and the East the best general account is that of F. C. DANVERS, The Portuguese in India, 2 vols., ( 1894). K. G. JAYNE'S Vasco da Gama and his Successors, 1460-1580 ( 1910) is good; and H. M. STEPHENS' Albuquerque and the Portuguese Settlements in India ( 1892) is the best brief account of that period. ALBUQUERQUE 'S Commentaries are perhaps the chief source for this subject. For the Portuguese in South Africa, see G. M. THEAL'S work under that title ( 1907). A. MARVAUD'S Le Portugal et ses Colonies ( 1912) is among the most recent volumes on this subject.
CHAPTER VII - THE RENAISSANCE AND THE REFORMATION. 1492-1521
For the general subject of the later Renaissance, reference may be made to the works included in the preliminary list of comprehensive titles and the bibliography of Chapter I, with some titles in Chapter II. There are, however, a number of special studies which may be mentioned here. Among them are L. EINSTEIN'S Italian Renaissance in England ( 1902) and W. H. WOODWARD, Vittorino da Feltre and other Humanist Educators ( 1897), together with the older book of G. VOIGT , Die Wiederbelebung des Classischen Alterthums, oder das erste Jahrhundert des Humanismus ( 3 ed., 1893), and the admirable recent work of TAYLOR, The Mediæval Mind. See also C. BURSIAN'S Geschichte der Classischen Philologie in Deutschland ( 1883) and GEIGER'S Renaissance u. Humanismus in Italien u. Deutschland ( 1882). A fairly good book-list will be found in the Cambridge Modern History, vol. i, bibliographical section.
Among the volumes interesting or important for the eve of the Reformation may be noted ERASMUS' Letters, translated by NICHOLS ( 1901); B. A. GASQUET, The Eve of the Reformation ( 1900); F. W. FARRAR , History of Interpretation ( 1886); and B. J. KIDD, Documents Illustrative of the Continental Reformation ( 1911). See, also, W. WALKER , The Reformation. For the history of the Inquisition, the standard works are those of H. C. LEA. The most recent suggestive work on the early Reformation is that of P. IMBART DE LA TOUR, Les Origines de la Réforme, 2 vols., ( 1905-09). Among earlier works it is necessary to note The Reformation, by J. J. I. DÖLLINGER ( 1853-54); LAMPRECHT'S Deutsche Geschichte, vol. v., ( 1896)--interesting if not always sound in its generalizations; A. E. BERGER'S Die Kulturaufgaben der Reformation, 2 ed., ( 1908); J. S. SCHAPIRO'S Social Reform and the Reformation ( 1909). For the Indulgence controversy, see H. C. LEA'S History of Auricular Confession and Indulgences, 3 vols., ( 1896); E. BRATKE'S Luther's 95 Theses u. ihren Dogmenhistorischen Voraussetzungen ( 1884); and W. KÖHLER'S Dokumente zum Ablassatreit von 1517 ( 1902). See, also, A. SCHULTE, Die Fugger in Rom. There are innumerable biographies of Luther, among whose authors may be named KOLDE, KÖSTLIN, LINDSAY, BEARD, MCGIFFERT, SMITH, DENIFLE, and GRISAR - the last two being Catholic historians.
On the development of the technique of painting probably the best work in English is that of P. G. HAMERTON ( 1882). H. N. HUMPHREYS' History of the Art of Printing ( 1867) and BIGMORE and WYMAN'S Bibliography of Printing serve as an introduction to the great literature on this subject. For more recent publications there is a good book-list in the article Typography in the Britannica, 11th ed.
CHAPTER VIII - REFORM AND POLITICS. 1521-1542
Many of the books most important for the study of this period have been noted in the bibliographies of the preceding chapters. It remains to enumerate those on the subjects not treated there. Among them is the history of the Ottoman Turks under Suleiman the Magnificent. Here the study of RANKE, Die Osmanen u. die Spanische Monarchie im 16ten u. 17ten Jahrhundert, and the great work of J. VON HAMMER ( 1834-35) are noteworthy. The recent study of A. H. LYBYER, The Government of the Ottoman Empire in the Time of Suleiman the Magnificent ( 1913), is valuable on the administrative side, and contains a good bibliography. To this may be added the monographs of E. CAT, De Caroli V in Africa rebus gestis ( 1891), and of J. ZELLER, La Diplomatie Française au milieu du xvi Siècle ( 1881), together with H. F. BROWN'S Venice ( 1893).
Among other works of interest in connection with the Reformation movement may be noted Cardinal F. A. GASQUET, "Edward VI and the Book of Common Prayer" ( 1890) and his Henry VIII and the English Monasteries ( 1888-89). See also "Annals of an Abbey" in FROUDE'S Short Studies on Great Subjects; and, in particular, A. F. POLLARD Cranmer; Henry VIII; and Factors in Modern History.
The subject of the rebellion of the knights and the peasants in Germany has received great attention. E. B. BAX, The Peasants' War in Germany ( 1899), gives a general popular account of the latter, concerning which there is a long list of German monographs, many of which are listed in the Camb. Mod. Hist., vol. ii, p. 753. There is a good biography of Ulrich von Hutten by STRAUSS, translated by STURGE ( 1874), and one of von Sickingen by H. ULMANN ( 1872). The bibliography of the German Reformation is too long to find any adequate representation here but is easily accessible in the general works noted in the bibliographical introduction, where may also be found an account of Reformation literature in general, which can only be touched on here. W. W. Rockwell has prepared a recent bibliography of the whole for the centenary of 1917.
For the Swiss Reformation the best English biography of Zwingli is that of S. M. JACKSON ( 1901), who has also edited Zwingli's writings. The best accessible English biography of Calvin is W. WALKER'S ( 1906). H. M. BAIRD'S "Beza", ( 1899) and his Rise of the Huguenots in France ( 1879) are useful. P. H. BROWN'S Life of John Knox ( 1895) and A. LANG'S Knox and the Reformation ( 1905) cover the Scotch period and give side-lights on Geneva. The Autobiography of Loyola is available in the English translation of J. F. X. O'CONOR ( 1900), and his Life, by F. THOMPSON ( 1910), is the latest presentment of that subject and of the early years of the Jesuits. Their activities in the various countries form the subject of a series of national histories now appearing under their auspices. The works of Calvin have been repeatedly republished in every north-European language and in innumerable forms. And it may be interesting in this connection to call attention to A. HARNACK'S History of Dogma, available in English, for a general comparative view of the results of this period.
CHAPTER IX - EUROPE BEYOND THE SEA. 1521-1542
For the work of Cortez see the bibliography cf Chapter VI. There is no biography of any importance of Pizarro. Sir C. MARKHAM'S History of Peru ( 1892) and his Incas of Peru ( 1910) touch on Pizarro's conquest and may be supplemented by the general works cited previously, and by GARCILLASSAO DE LA VEGA'S Royal Commentaries of the Incas, translated in Hakluyt Society publications. The treatment of the Indians is the subject of much discussion, the sanest summary of modern opinion being probably that of BOURNE, as above. LAS CASAS' great indictment of his countrymen, the "Brevissima Relacion de la Destruycion des las Indias Occidentales" and his Historia de las Indias are not available in English but that lack is partially supplied by the biographies of Las Casas by Sir A. HELPS ( 1868) and F. A. MACNUTT ( 1909). To these may be added W. LOWERY'S Spanish Settlements, 2 vols., ( 1901-05).
The explorations are the subject of an unusually large literature, for which the bibliographies in BOURNE'S Spain in America, in WINSOR'S "Narrative and Critical History", and in the publication known as Writings on American History (1902 ff.), may act as guides. There are several available narratives of the explorers, that of Coronado, edited by WINSHIP ( 1904); that of Cabeça de Vaca, by SMITH ( 1866); that of De Soto, by BOURNE ( 1904). NAVARRETE'S Coleccion de los Viages y Descubrimientos, 5 vols., ( 1825-37), is useful for this period as for the earlier.
The so-called New Laws of Charles V are available in Spanish but no public English editions. The import of specie from the American colonies has been made the subject of a number of studies, the latest and perhaps the most satisfactory being that of C. H. HARING, in the Quarterly Journal of Economics for May, 1915. See also his Trade and Navigation between Spain and the Indies under the Hapsburgs ( 1918).
There is no adequate history of Brazil in English. The Brazilian Portuguese history of C. DE ABREU, Discobrimento do Brazil e seu desenvolvimento no seculo xix ( 1883), the various accounts of its colonial development in the general histories of colonies, and the brief and not very satisfactory sketch in DAWSON'S South America in the Stories of the Nations series, may suffice for an introduction to its history.
The explorations of the French are treated in many volumes relating to North America and colonial history. Among these, PARKMAN'S Pioneers of France ( 1865) remains the most readable account. CARTIER 'S Narrative has been published by J. P. Baxter ( 1906) and by the University of Toronto; H. P. BIGGAR, The Precursors of Jacques Cartier, etc., (documents, Canadian gov't publications). See, also, J. F. JAMESON (ed.), Original Narratives of Early American History.
CHAPTER X - SOCIAL AND INTELLECTUAL EUROPE. 1521-1542
The developments of science in the sixteenth century have been treated in a multitude of monographs widely scattered in time and place. Some of them may be found listed in the CREBAR Bibliographies, noted above; and many more in the scientific journals. But a general bibliography of such material is still desired. Apart from the histories of mathematics, the work of Copernicus has been elaborately treated in L. PROWE'S Nicolaus Copernicus, 2 vols., ( 1883-84), and that of his predecessors in G. V. SCHIAPARELLI'S I Precursori del Copernico nell' Antichità ( 1873). F. H. GARRISON'S History of Medicine ( 1914), apart from its other virtues, contains a great amount of medical bibliography of value and interest to the general reader as well as to the specialist. The life of Vesalius (which finds no place in the Britannica) has been the subject of two biographies, one in German by M. ROTH ( 1892), the other in English by J. M. BALL ( 1910). The other biographical material may be found in Garrison.
The history of art has been more fortunate and there is a wealth of material upon painters and their work. Reference may be made briefly to some recent works. WÖLFFLIN, The Art of the Italian Renaissance ( 1903); CROWE and CAVALCASELLE, History of Painting in Italy; Early Flemish Painting ( 1879); DIMIER, French Painting in the 16th Century; L. F. FREEMAN, Italian Sculptors of the Renaissance ( 1902); H. JANITSCHEK, Geschichte der Deutschen Malerei ( 1890). The source for much of the material relating to Italian art of this period is VASARI'S Lives of the Painters (1550-68), which is available in many translations. There are several biographies of the younger Holbein which throw light upon his period. Among them may be mentioned those of H. KNACKFUSS ( 1899) and of G. S. DAVIES ( 1903).
The social and economic changes of the sixteenth century may be studied in EHRENBERG, Das Zeitalter der Fugger ( 1896); W. NAUDÉ, Die Getreidehandelspolitik der Europäischen Staaten vom 13ten bis zum 18ten Jahrhundert ( 1896); WIEBE, Zur Geschichte der Preisrevolution des xvi u. xvii Jahrhunderts ( 1895); W. J. ASHLEY, Introduction to English Economic History and Theory, 4 ed., ( 1913); G. UNWIN , "Industrial Organization in the 16th and 17th Centuries" ( 1904) and his Gilds and Companies of London ( 1908); W. CUNNINGHAM, "Growth of English Industry and Commerce in the Middle Ages", 4 ed., ( 1904), in Modern Times, 5 ed., ( 1912); M. KOVALESKY, Die Oekonomische Entwicklung Europas bis zum Beginn der Kapitalischen Wirthschaftsform, 7 vols., German from Russian ( 1901-14).
CHAPTER XI - THE AGE OF THE COUNCIL OF TRENT. 1542-1563
The best known work in English on the Council of Trent is that of FROUDE ( 1896); in German, probably that of MAURENBRECHER ( 188690); in French, the much older work of PRAT ( 1854). H. MÜLLER'S Les Origines de la Compagnie de Jésus, Ignace et Lainez ( 1898), and C. SOMMERVOGEL'S Bibliothèque de la Compagnie de Jésus ( 1890, etc.) afford an introduction to that vast and intricate subject. REUSCH'S Der Index der Verbotenen Bücher ( 1885) and the current issues of the Index illuminate that subject. The great work of SARPI on the Council of Trent and its answer by PALLAVICINI afford the basis for much of the history of its activities. They have been critically examined by RANKE in his History of the Popes, which affords a check on each, and on FROUDE. For the history of dogma, see HARNACK, as above. The history of political theory has been clearly set forth by W. A. DUNNING in his History of Political Theories from Luther to Montesquieu ( 1905). H. HÖFFDING'S History of Modern Philosophy ( 1900), P. JANET'S Histoire de la Science Politique dans ses Rapports avec la Morale ( 1887), and BAX'S The Social Side of the Reformation in Germany may be read with profit.
The history of the different European countries during this period may be found in the general works listed under the preceding chapters. To them may be added H. M. BAIRD, History of the Rise of the Huguenots in France ( 1879-80); J. M. STONE, History of Mary I ( 1901); J. L. MOTLEY, Rise of the Dutch Republic ( 1855, etc.); HAAG, France Protestante, 2 ed., ( 1877-95); LINGARD'S History of England (Catholic--many editions); STEPHENS and HUNT, History of the Church of England--a co-operative work (1902 ff.); S. R. MAITLAND'S Essays on the Reformation (repr.-Introd. by A. W. HUTTON, 1899); A. W. WARD'S Brief Sketch of the Counter-Reformation ( 1889). For the part of the enigmatical Maurice of Saxony in German affairs, see E. BRANDENBURG, Moritz von Sachsen ( 1898); for the Schmalkaldic War, see G. VOIGT, Geschichtsschreibung über den Schmalkaldischen Krieg ( 1874), and G. WOLF, Der Augsburger Religionsfriede ( 1890). See also A. F. POLLARD, England under the Protector Somerset.
CHAPTER XII - THE AGE OF PHILIP II AND THE RELIGIOUS WARS
For the reign and character of Philip II perhaps the most easily accessible works in English are those of PRESCOTT, MOTLEY, and M. A. S. HUME, all of which are written from a more or less hostile standpoint. A more favorable view by a Danish scholar is BRATLI, Philippe II roi d'Espagne ( 1912). M. PHILIPPSON'S Zeitalter von Philip II u. Elisabeth is perhaps less biassed, as is the work of RANKE. In Spanish there is the work of L. CABRERA DE CORDOBA, La Historia de Felipe II ( 1876), and in French that of H. FORNERON, Histoire de Philippe II, 4 vols., ( 1881-82).
For the history of France during this period, see ARMSTRONG, French Wars of Religion
Wars of Religion ( 1892), and RANKE, Civil Wars and Monarchy in France. The best and most recent study on this subject, however, is that of J. W. THOMPSON, Wars of Religion in France ( 1909). The little biography of Coligni by WALTER BESANT is a very readable though not a very scholarly account; while E. ARMSTRONG'S The Huguenots and Henry of Navarre ( 1887) is longer and better. For the civil wars and Catherine de Medici, see COMTE H. DE LA FERRIÉRE, who has written extensively on the subject, chiefly in monographs.
For the Netherlands, besides MOTLEY and BLOK, the more recent biography of William the Silent by Miss R. PUTNAM, 2 vols., ( 1895), gives the more modern view of his career and character; while the essay by F. HARRISON ( 1897) offers some interesting views. The extensive work of KERVYN DE LETTENHOVE on Les Huguenots et les Gueux, 6 vols., ( 1883-85) is the best authority on that relationship, but the many contributions of "the Dutch Ranke," FRUIN, including his Tien jaren nit den tachtigjarigen oorlog ( 1861), form by far the most valuable contribution to the history of the period.
Elizabethan England is the subject of a vast literature. BEESLEY'S Queen Elizabeth ( 1892) is a brief readable biography, as is M. CREIGHTON 'S work under the same title ( 1896). M. A. S. HUME'S "The Great Lord Burghley" ( 1898) and the Courtships of Queen Elizabeth ( 1896) are of interest and importance. The histories of England in the Hunt and Poole and the Oman series are good; while for Ireland the work of BAGWELL, though not interesting reading, has virtually superseded all others in its minute accuracy. FROUDE'S English Seamen in the 16th Century ( 1895), chiefly derived from Hakluyt, is a fascinating book with little scholarly value. See W. STIRLING MAXWELL'S Don John of Austria, 2 vols., ( 1883); and A. O. MEYER, England u. d. Katholische Kirche ( 1911). The best accounts are found in A. F. POLLARD , England 1547-1603; and in E. P. CHEYNEY'S History of England in this period, of which one volume has appeared.
For the acquisition of Portugal by Philip II, see J. ESTÉBANEZ CALDERON , La conquista y perdida de Portugal ( 1885). For the expulsion of the Moors. see H. C. LEA, The Moriscos of Spain ( 1901), and S. LANE POOLE, The Moors in Spain ( 1897).
The literature on Mary, Queen of Scots, is as endless as the controversy which still rages concerning her character and career. It is only possible to observe here that there is a good book-list of it in the Cambridge Modern History, vol. iii, p. 810.
With regard to the early English chartered companies the best book on the whole is that of P. BONNASIEUX, Les Grandes Compagnies de Commerce ( 1892). The volume of CAWSTON and KEANE on The Early Chartered Companies ( 1896) is too brief and general. The publications of the University of Pennsylvania contain some interesting and important studies on this subject: the material for which, however, save for the East India Company, is relatively scanty and unsatisfactory.
The expansion of Russia and the Europeanization of its people is a subject not very easily accessible in west-European languages beyond the general histories. The volumes of A. KRAUSSE, Russia in Asia ( 1899), and of H. LANSDELL, Russia in Central Asia, 2 vols., ( 1885), with works like that of G. TOLSTOY, The First Forty Years of Intercourse between England and Russia ( 1875), and of A. BRÜCKNER, Die Europäisierung Russlands ( 1888), with the accounts of the various travelers and ambassadors as contained in Hakluyt and Purchas, and in published diplomatic correspondence, comprise the available material on a subject which deserves more treatment in English. See, also, the article by Mme. LUBIMENKO in the American Historical Review, XIX, 525.
CHAPTER XIII - THE CONDITIONS OF CONFLICT. 1578-1588
For the condition of Spain and Portugal, see the works enumerated in the general and chapter bibliographies as above. For the Spanish navy, see C. DURO FERNANDEZ, La Armada Española, etc., ( 1896-97). For the English navy, see J. CORBETT, Drake and the Tudor Navy, 2 vols., ( 1898). These should be compared with BOUREL DE LA RONCIERE 'S Histoire de la Marine Française; R. H. COLOMB, Naval Warfare, 2 ed. ( 1895); Sir W. L. CLOWES, The Royal Navy, 7 vols., ( 18971903); and OPPENHEIM, History of the Administration of the Royal Navy ( 1896), as well as POLLARD'S England 1547-1603.
For Mercator there are works by RAEMDONCK, BREUSING, WAUWERMANS, and VAN ORTROY, and for Belgian cartography, H. E. WAUWER- MANS , Histoire de l'École Cartographique Belge et Anversoise du xvi Siècle, 2 vols., ( 1895), is good.
See, also, L. BATIFFOL, The Century of the Renaissance in France, tr. E. F. BUCKLEY ( 1916).
CHAPTER XIV - THE ARMADA. 1575-1588
For the exploits of Drake, see CORBETT Drake and the Tudor Navy, as above, and his brief biography of Drake ( 1890). The pages of Hakluyt are full of the accounts of the exploits of Drake and his companions; and there is much material in the publications of the Hakluyt Society relating to the same subjects. See, also, E. JONES, Life of Frobisher ( 1878). For Polar exploration, see A. W. GREZELY'S Handbook of Polar Discovery, 4 ed., ( 1910), which contains much interesting information, and for the literature of the subject, see J. CHAVANNE. The articles and bibliographies under the individual names in the Dictionary of National Biography are, in general, especially good.
For Ireland, see BAGWELL, as above, and lists in J. KING Irish Bibliography. One of the best books on Ireland is BONN'S Englische Kolonisation in Irland. Most of the volumes on Ireland, however, are, like FROUDE English in Ireland, so highly controversial as to be good reading but poor history.
For the Armada, see C. DURO FERNANDEZ, La Armada Invencible, 2 vols., ( 1884-85), and the account of the Armada in Hakluyt and in the various works quoted above under English, Spanish, and naval history. The most brilliant account in English is unquestionably that of FROUDE, the best are to be found in POLLAND, England 1547-1603, and LAUGHTON, Defeat of the Spanish Armada.
CHAPTER XV - THE AGE OF ELIZABETH AND THE ANGLO-DUTCH INVASION OF THE EAST. 1583-1601
For the general naval operations, see the works quoted above on English and Spanish history. To these may be added J. A. FROUDE, The Spanish Story of the Armada ( 1892); M. A. S. HUME, The Year after the Armada, etc., ( 1896); W. F. TILTON, Die Katastrophe der Spanischen Armada ( 1894). Purchas His Pilgrimes--the corollary of Hakluyt--is the source of a great amount of material relating to the adventures of the English in the East; and the publications of the Hakluyt Society contain many of the narratives of the adventurers, notably that of LANCASTER ( 1877), ROE'S Embassy to the Great Mogul ( 1889), DE VEER'S Voyages of Barentz ( 1876), and the like. BURNELL and TIELE'S Voyage of J. H. van Linschoten to the East Indies ( 1885) and the old collections of Kerr and Renneville have still others. The best Life of Raleigh is that of E. EDWARDS, 2 vols., ( 1868), but there are several shorter and more recent biographies containing new material, by GOSSE, STEBBING, HUME, and DE SELINCOURT. See, also, S. R. GARDINER's History of England ( 1883-84).
Of secondary works, W. W. HUNTER'S History of British India ( 18991900) and many of his other voluminous works contain a great amount of information relating to the subject; while the chief source for the early years of the English India Company is the collection of its papers edited by BIRDWOOD. C. DAY, The Dutch in Java, is the authority for its subject. J. DE LA GRAVIERE, Les Anglais et les Hollandais dans les Mers Polaires et dans les Mer des Indes ( 1890), covers precisely this field. The Dutch material is catalogued to 1875 in J. A. VAN DER CHIJS , Nederlandsche Indische Bibliographie, in his publication of that date; while the older work of TIELE, Mémoire bibliographique sur les journaux des navigateurs Néerlandais ( 1867), still has value. Most important of all is the Encyclopedic van Nederlandsch-Indie ( 1896).
For the Dutch East India Company, see J. K. J. DE JONGE, De Opkomst van bet Nederlandsch gezag in oost-Indien, 13 vols., ( 1862-88); J. J. MEINSMA , Geschiedenis van de Nederlandsche oost-Indische Bezittingen, 3 vols., ( 1872-75). The great original of most of these works is the old book of F. VALENTYN, Beschryving van oud en nieuw oost-Indien, 8 vols., ( 1724).
CHAPTER XVI - EUROPE AT THE CLOSE OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY
For the economic phases of the late sixteenth century see the works quoted in the bibliography to Chapter X. To these may be added H. D. TRAILL 'S Social England ( 1893-98). which contains a vast amount of information and, in the illustrated edition, an unusually informing series of pictures. For the development of armor and weapons one of the best sources is ELTON'S Compleat Body of the Art Military ( 1668). HEWIT'S Arms and Armor and the works of VIOLLET-LE-DUC also contain much valuable and interesting information and many illustrations both of a mor and costume. For the latter there is a considerable literature. The Cyclopedia of Costume, 2 vols., ( 1856-57), and RACINET, Le Costume Historique, 6 vols., illus., ( 1888) are useful. For architecture, see R. STURGIS, History of Architecture ( 1906 ff.), and the volumes by FERGUSSON, HAMLIN, and FLETCHER on the same subject. For Palladio, see the lives by ZANELLA ( 1880) and by BARICHELLA ( 1880).
It need hardly be said that the literature of the drama and the Elizabethan stage is almost unlimited. The latest, and in many respects the most important, work on that subject is the co-operative work, The England of Shakespeare ( 1916, etc.). Probably the best biography of Shakespeare is that of S. LEE, several editions, the last in 1915. The best accessible bibliography of Shakespeare is in the last edition of the Britannica, under his name. For a general account of Elizabethan drama and dramatists, see A. W. WARD, History of English Dramatic Literature to the Death of Anne ( 1899), and the Cambridge History of English Literature, edited by WARD and WALLER ( 1907-16).
For the rise and development of the opera, see the Oxford History of Music ( 1901-05) and G. GROVE'S Dictionary of Music and Musicians, edited by MAITLAND ( 1904-08).
CHAPTER XVII - THE RISE OF HOLLAND AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BOURBON MONARCHY. 1603-1623
For the character and career of Henry IV of France, see WILLERT Henry of Navarre in the Heroes of the Nations series, and especially E. LAVISSE, Vie de Sully ( 1880), and his Histoire de Prance. The Mémoires of Sully are among the most interesting and valuable of the sources, and are available in an English translation. For Henry's Grand Design, see C. A. CORNELIUS, Der Grosse Plan Heinrichs IV ( 1896). The literature of the reign of the most popular of French sovereigns is very great; and an exhaustive bibliography of it is to be found by H. HAUSER in his Sources de l'histoire de France ( 1909). See, also, bibliography to Chapter XII.
For Russia and the beginning of the Romanoffs, see STRAHL and HERMANN'S Geschichte des Russischen Staates, vol. iii, ( 1846); PRINCE E. GALITZIN's La Russie du xviie Siècle dans ses Rapports avec l'Europe Occidentale ( 1855); R. N. BAIN, The First Romanovs ( 1905); and Hakluyt Society, Russia at the Close of the 16th Century, ed. BOND ( 1856).
For the early years of the seventeenth century in Germany, see GINDELY History of the Thirty Years' War to 1632, tr. by TEN BROOK ( 1884), and his various writings in German on the reign of Rudolf II; A. W. WARD, The House of Austria in the Thirty Years' War ( 1869); STIEVE Der Kampf um Donauwörth ( 1875); FREYTAG'S Pictures of German Life in the 17th and 18th Centuries; WAKEMAN'S The Ascend-ancy of France 1598-1715 ancy of France 1598-1715. The little book of S. R. GARDINER, The Thirty Years' War, is a good introduction. For more detailed lists, see the Cambridge Modern History, vol. iii; and especially DAHLMANN-WAITZ as quoted in the general bibliographical introduction above.
For the history of England and the policy of James I, see S. R. GARDINER , History of England from the Accession of James I ( 18991900), and the volumes in the Hunt and Poole and Oman series.
For the history of the Netherlands, see bibliography for Chapters XII and XV. To the works there quoted may be added J. L. MOTLEY'S History of the United Netherlands ( 1860-67) and his Life and Death of John of Barneveldt ( 1874). In Dutch, the work of J. A. VAN DER CHIJS , De vesteegiging van her Nederlandsche gezag over de Banda Eilanden 1599-1621 ( 1886), is good. In German, REES, Geschiedenis der Koloniale Politiek ( 1868), and REUS' Geschichtlicher Ueberblick der administrativen, rechtlichen u. finanziellen Entwicklung der Niederlandisch-Ostindischen Compagnie ( 1894), are among the principal works. For the Dutch in Brazil and Guiana, see articles by L. DRIESEN and G. EDMUNDSON in the English Historical Review, vols. xi to xix, passim, and P. M. NETSCHER Les Hollandais au Brésil ( 1853) and Geschiedenis van de Kolonieen Essequibo, Demerary, en Berbice ( 1888). One of the best monographs on Dutch colonial expansion is that of J. F. JAMESON, W. Usselincx ( 1887). See also in this subject the elaborate reports prepared by the representatives of the British and American governments in the controversy over the boundary between Venezuela and British Guiana, and published as official documents in 1896-97.
CHAPTER XVIII - ENGLAND, FRANCE, AND HOLLAND IN AMERICA. 1603-1623
The chief bibliographical and cartographical source for this period is the Narrative and Critical History of WINSOR, quoted above. The principal popular works on the subject in English are those of JOHN FISKE; and, for the French, those of FRANCIS PARKMAN. There is a vast literature on the subject of the English and Dutch colonies in particular, which may be found for the most part enumerated in CHANNING, HART, and TURNER'S Guide, as above. The two volumes of the American Nation series, France in America, by R. G. THWAITES, and England in America, by L. G. TYLER, are brief popular accounts. The best general authorities are E. CHANNING, History of the United States, vol. i ( 1905), BROWN, Genesis of the United States, 2 vols., ( 1891), OSGOOD, The American Colonies in the 17th Century, DOYLE, English Colonies in America, 5 vols., ( 1882-1907), and the publications in connection with the Champlain celebration. E. EGGLESTON'S Beginners of a Nation ( 1897) is a good readable account of the Pilgrim Fathers. G. L. BEER'S Origins of the British Colonial System ( 1908), while chiefly devoted to a later period, is of importance. SMITH'S Narrative is available in several recent editions, and Champlain Voyages has been translated by Mr. and Mrs. E. G. BOURNE, and more recently edited by W. L. GRANT ( 1907).
CHAPTER XIX - THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR. 1618-1632
The literature of the Thirty Years' War is too vast to receive any adequate notice here. There is a good brief guide to it in the Cambridge Modern History at the end of the volume under that title, and a fairly complete bibliography in DAHLMANN-WAITZ. For the war itself perhaps the best account in English is the translation of GINDELY by TEN BROOK and KLOPP. The best sketch is GARDINER'S Thirty Years' War ( 1874). The work of SCHILLER is a classic not a history; that of HÄUSSER on the Reformation is long since displaced by better work but is still readable. For the history of England, see Chapter XVII. NEAL'S History of the Puritans, though an old work, still has value. It is available in many editions. In the matter of biographies the period is prolific. Among them may be noted G. FAGNIEZ, Le Père Joseph et Richelieu, 2 vols., ( 1894); A. GINDELY, Friedrich V von der Pfalz, etc., ( 1884); K. HAUCK, Elisabeth, Königin von Böhmen, etc., ( 1905); F. STIEVE, Ernst von Mansfeld ( 1890), and Kurfürst Maximilian I von Baiern ( 1900); and the biographies of Richelieu by R. LODGE ( 1896) and by J. B. PERKINS ( 1900). Perhaps the best biographical material relating to the period is to be found in the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie and the Dictionary of National Biography.
CHAPTER XX - COMMERCE AND COLONIES. 1621-1642
The biographies of Richelieu and especially those of Champlain contain some account of the beginnings of Canadian settlement and French colonial policy. For the history of Virginia, see FISKE'S Old Virginia and her Neighbors, 2 vols., ( 1900), and BRUCE'S three works on the Economic ( 1896), the Institutional ( 1910), and the Social Life in Virginia ( 1907) during the seventeenth century. For the New England settlements, see FISKE Beginnings of New England ( 1889); for New Amsterdam, see J. H. INNES, New Amsterdam and Its People ( 1902) and Mrs. S. VAN RENSSELAER'S excellent History of the City of New York in the 17th Century ( 1909). For the administration of Frederick Henry, see G. EDMUNDSON'S article on Frederick Henry in English Historical Review ( 1890), and the bibliography under his name in Cambridge Modern History, vol. iv, p. 931 ff. For Coen, see W. A. TERWOGT'S Het land van Jan Pieterz. Coen ( 1891). For Dutch exploits in Brazil, see F. A. VARNHAGEN'S Historia das Lutas com os Hollandezes no Brazil desde 1624 a 1654 ( 1871), and especially P. NETSCHER , Les Hollandais au Brésil ( 1853), with articles as above Chapter XVII. G. M. ASHER'S Bibliographical and Historical Essay on Dutch books, etc., relating to the New Netherland and the Dutch West India Company ( 1854-57) is still useful as a guide to the literature of this not very well worked-up subject, while the same may be said of the old book of BRYAN EDWARDS, The History of the British Colonies in the West Indies, 4 ed., ( 1807), and of EXQUEMELING'S Buccaneers, available in several editions and various translations. The best sketch of the buccaneers is that by C. H. HARING ( 1910). For works relating to Spanish and Portuguese America in this period, chiefly contemporary or nearly so, see WINSOR'S Narrative and Critical History. For the revolt of Portugal and the regaining of its independence, J. DUNLOP , Spain during the Reign of Philip IV ( 1834); M. A. S. HUME, History of the Spanish People ( 1901) and Spain: Its Greatness and Decay ( 1898). In Spanish, M. LAFUENTE, Historia de España ( 1888) A. CANOVAS DEL CASTILLO, Estudios del Reinado de Felipe IV ( 1889) and F. SILVELA (ed.), Cartas de Sor Maria de Agrela y del rey Felipe IV ( 1885-86) introd.; and in German RANKE, Fürsten u. Völker von SüdEuropa im 16 u. 17 Jahrhundert ( 1874, etc.).
CHAPTER XXI - INTELLECTUAL AND SOCIAL PROGRESS. 1610-1642
For costume and armor see the bibliography to Chapter XVI. For lace-making there are a number of pattern-books of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries; and a History of the Manufacture of Venetian Laces by G. M. URBANI DE GHELTOF, tr. by Lady LAYARD. Probably the best work on the subject is that of E. LEFEBVRE, Embroidery and Lace, their Manufacture and History, etc., ( 1888), and another on Point d'Alencçon by Mme. G. DESPIERRES ( 1886). For tobacco, see W. BRAGGE Bibliographia Nicotiana ( 1880) for the best, yet very incomplete book-list; and FAIRHOLT Tobacco, its History and Associations, 2 ed., ( 1876) and TIEDMANN'S Geschiehte des Tabaks ( 1856). For tea, see J. G. HOUSSAYE, Monographie de Thé; and the bibliography in D. CROLE, Tea, its Cultivation and Manufacture ( 1897). For coffee, see WALSH'S Coffee, its History ( 1902). For chocolate and cocoa, see W. BAKER & Co., Cocoa and Chocolate ( 1899), and CANNON, History of Cocoa ( 1901). The historical muse does not seem to have inspired the devotees of strong drink as she has those of the milder beverages. There is a history of the art of distillation and of distilling apparatus by O. SCHREINER ( 1901), but it is devoted chiefly to volatile oils, and we are compelled to fall back on the articles in the general and technical encyclopædias for information.
For the advance in science, beside the works noted in the general bibliography, see S. A. ARRHENIUS' Theories of Chemistry ( 1907); E. O. VON LIPPMANN's Abhandlungen u. Vorträge zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften ( 1906); E. VON MEYER'S A History of Chemistry . . . being also an Introduction to the Study of Science (trans.), ( 1906); W. RAMSAY, Essays, Biographical and Chemical ( 1908); R. O. MOON The Relation of Medicine to Philosophy ( 1909); and, among the many histories of medicine enumerated in the Crerar Library catalogues, and the catalogue of the Surgeon-General's office in Washington which is the most comprehensive of all book-lists relating to the subject. There may also be noted the popular essays of J. J. WALSH, Makers of Modern Medicine ( 1907) and The Popes and Science ( 1908). For Harvey, see R. WILLIS' biography ( 1878) and the Life by W. MUNK ( 1879). For Galileo see the edition of his works begun in Florence in 1890. J. J.
FAHIE, Galileo ( 1903); and F. R. WEGG-PROSSER'S Galileo and his Judges ( 1889). For Kepler, C. G. REUSCHLE'S Kepler u. die Astronomic ( 1871) and A. MüLLER'S Johann Kepler, der Gesetzgaber dee Neueren Astronomic ( 1903). For Tycho Brahe, see J. L. E. DREYER'S Tycho Brahe ( 1890). See, also, M. FOSTER History of Physiology during the 16th, 17th and 18th Centuries ( 1901), and H. ZEUTHEN'S Geschichte der Mathematik im 16 u. 17 Jahrhundert ( 1903).
For Bacon, see J. SPEDDING'S Life and Letters of Lord Bacon, the standard biography; S. LEE'S Great Englishmen of the 16th Century ( 1904); J. M. ROBERTSON'S Short History of Freethought; and CH. ADAM 'S Philosophie de Francis Bacon ( 1890), besides the histories of philosophy quoted above.
These histories are valuable for Descartes and his philosophy. For more detailed studies, see also E. S. HALDANE, Descartes, his Life and Times, including a bibliography ( 1905), and the article in Cambridge Modern History, vol. iv, with bibliography, and N. SMITH, Studies in the Cartesian Philosophy ( 1902). A complete collection of his works was begun in 1907. See, also, R. ADAMSON, The Development of Modern Philosolohy ( 1903); K. FISCHER, History of Modern Philosophy; Descartes and his School, tr., ( 1887); and L. LEVY-BRUHL, History of Modern Philosophy in France, tr., ( 1899).
For Grotius, see L. NEUMANN, Hugo Grotius ( 1884). A life and bibliography of Grotius was published by LEHMANN in 1727; an English life by C. BUTLER in 1826; and an English translation of De Jure Belli (trans. and abridged) by WHEWELL, in 1853. See also A. PILLET, Fondateurs du droit international, Grotius ( 1904); and the edition of Grotius, ed. J. B. SCOTT, in Classics of International Law, Carnegie Inst. ( 1913--).
For Bruno, see J. LEWIS M'INTYRE'S Life, Commentary and Bibliography ( 1903) and A. RIEHL'S Biography, tr., ( 1905), among several. For Campanella, see L. AMABILE, Fra T. Campanella, 3 vols., ( 1882). There is a bibliography of Campanella in the Dictionnaire de Theologic Catholique ( 1904).
CHAPTER XXII - THE PEACE OF WESTPHALIA AND THE ENGLISH REVOLUTION. 1642-1648
The principal sources and bibliographies for the Thirty Years' War have been indicated under Chapters XVII and XIX. There are a number of biographies of Wallenstein of importance for the period, though unfortunately no adequate work in English. In German the principal books are those of RANKE, Geschichte Wallensteins ( 1872, 1910); and GINDELY, Waldstein, 2 vols., ( 1886). There are two English biographies of Gustavus Adolphus available, C. R. L. FLETCHER ( 1890) and T. A. Donor ( 1896). In German, one of the principal biographies is that of G. DROYSEN, 2 vols., ( 1869-70). See, also, R. N. BAIN, Scandinavia 1513-1900 ( 1905) for a brief account of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, and F. F. CARLSSON, Geschichte Schwedens, tr. from the Swedish, ( 1855). In French, see E. CHARVÉRIAT, Histoire de la Guerre de Trente Ans, 2 vols., ( 1878), and for Austria, see F. KBONES' Handbuch dee Geschichte Oesterreichs ( 1877, etc.); E. DENIS' Fin de l'Indépendance Bohême ( 1890) and La Bohême depuis la Montagne-Blanche ( 1903) are useful, as is H. PIRENNE, Histoire de Belgique ( 1911). See, also, the works of J. B. PERKINS, Richelieu ( 1900) and France under Mazarin ( 1886); and also G. AVENEL, Richelieu et la Monarchie Absolue, 4 vols., ( 1884-90). There is an older book of popular interest by E. CUST, Lives of the Warriors of the Thirty Years' War, 2 vols., ( 1865); and more recent lives of Bernard of Saxe-Weimar by A. THOMA ( 1904), of Bethen Gabor by GINDELY ( 1890) and IGNÁE-ACSDY, Gabriel Bethlen and his Court ( 1890).
For the history of England in this period the standard work is that of S. R. GARDINER. For histories of Scotland, see J. H. BURTON ( 1873), P. H. BROWN ( 1905), and ANDREW LANG ( 1906). For the Grand Remonstrance, see the monographs by J. FORSTER ( 1860) and H. L. SCHOOLCRAFT ( 1902). G. M. TREVELYAN'S England under the Stuarts ( 1905) is an eminently readable but not a very scientific review of the period, excellent on the social and literary side. J. B. MOZLEY Essays, Historical and Theological, 2 vols., ( 1878), is good for the high church point of view, and J. G. PALFREY'S History of New England ( 1884) is still valuable for that part of the Puritan movement. C. H. SIMPKINSON , Thomas Harrison, Regicide and Major-General ( 1905) gives a good picture of the more advanced party, and the Stuart series of biographies published by Goupil Frères are beautifully illustrated works of much value historically as well as artistically. J. MORLEY'S Life of Cromwell ( 1900) is excellent on the philosophical side, and T. C. PEASE, The Leveller Movement ( 1916) is the best statement of the case for that group of radicals, as Miss LOUISE BROWN'S Fifth Monarchists is excellent for that faction.
The articles of the Peace of Westphalia, as of the treaties of the following period, are available in DUMONT and ROUSSEL DE MISSY'S Corps Universel Diplomatique du Droit des Gens contenant un Recueil des Traitez ( 1727); see also J. G. VON MEIERN Acta Pacis Westphalicae Publica ( 1734-36). For treaties relating to the territories now occupied by the United States, see F. G. DAVENPORT, Treaties bearing on the History of the United States and its Dependencies to 1648 (Washington, 1917).
CHAPTER XXIII - THE AGE OF CROMWELL. 1642-1660
The beat three biographies of Cromwell are those of MORLEY (see bibliography to preceding chapter), S. R. GARDINER ( 1899), and C. H. FIRTH. See, also, GARDINER'S Cromwell's Place in History ( 1897); and for an adverse view R. F. D. PALGRAVE'S Oliver Cromwell, the Protector ( 1890 and 1903). The best edition of his letters is Mrs. S. C. LOMAS' ed. of CARLYLE'S Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell, 3 vols., ( 1904). The most comprehensive work on Cromwell as a soldier is that of F. HÖNIG ( 1887) which should be compared with T. S. BALDOCK ( 1899); and the best account of his army is that of C. H. FIRTH, Cromwell's Army ( 1902). For the navy, See M. OPPMHEIM, Administra-tion of the Royal Navy
tion of the Royal Navy ( 1896). For Cromwell's foreign relations, see G. JONES, Relations between Cromwell and Charles X of Sweden ( 1897); BISCROFSHAUSEN, Die Politik des Protectors Oliver Cromwell, etc., ( 1899); J. N. BOWMAN, Protestant Interest in Cromwell's Foreign Relations ( 1900); CARLBOM, Sverige och England ( 1900); and G. L. BEER , Cromwell's Policy in its Economic Aspects ( 1902). See, also, The Last Years of the Protectorate by C. H. FIRTH ( 1909); and Cromwell's Scotch Campaigns by W. S. DOUGLAS ( 1898). The principal source for many of these subjects is J. THUBLOE, Collection of State Papers, etc., 7 vols., ( 1702-03). For the English Church during this period, see W. A. SHAW, History of the English Church during the Civil Wars and under the Commonwealth, 2 vols., ( 1900). The articles in the Dictionary of National Biography are especially good for biographical data.
For the insurrection of Masaniello, see A. G. MEISSNER and E. BOURG 'S Masaniello. For Khmelnitzki, see R. N. BAIN, The First Romanovs, as quoted above. For the effect of Cromwell's policy oversea, see the volumes quoted in Chapter XVIII, and N. D. DAVIS, The Cavaliers and Roundheads of Barbados ( 1887). For the Anglo-Dutch war, see EDMUNDSON as above. For Ireland, see R. BAGWELL, Ireland under the Stuarts and Commonwealth; M. J. BONN, Die Englische Kolonisation in Irland, 2 vols., ( 1906); and A. BELLESHEIM, Geschichte der Katholischen Kirche in Irland, 3 vols., ( 1890-1901). The best brief account is the introduction to R. DUNLOP'S Ireland under the Commonwealth ( 1913) --a collection of documents.
There are two good books on the Netherlands in this period: J. GEDDES , The Administration of John de Witt, 1 vol., (all published), ( 1879), and A. LEFÉVRE PONTALIS, Vingt Années de Republique Parlementaire au Dix-septiéme Sièele: Jean de Witt, 2 vols., ( 1884) , tr. STEPHENSON ( 1885). For naval affairs, see J. S. CORBETT, England in the Mediterranean, 2 vols., ( 1904), and his Successors of Drake ( 1900).
For general political progress, see G. P. GOOCH, History of English Democratic Ideas in the 17th Century ( 1889); C. BORGEAUD, Rise of Modern Democracy in Old and New England, tr., ( 1894); and L. H. BERENS , The Digger Movement ( 1906).
CHAPTER XXIV - EUROPE AT THE MIDDLE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
For the development of the English colonies in North America, see the books referred to in the bibliography to Chapter XVIII. To these may be added MERENESS' Maryland as a Proprietary Province ( 1901); LATANE'S Early Relations of Maryland and Virginia ( 1895); and STEINER'S The Beginnings of Maryland ( 1903). See, also, G. PENN'S Memorials of the Professional Life and Times of Sir W. Penn, 2 vols., ( 1833), with the articles of C. H. FIRTH in the English Historical Review ( 1905ff.) on Blake.
For New France, see PARKMAN'S works as quoted above and for New Netherlands, the bibliography to Chapter XVIII. For the exploration cf the Northwest, see A. C. LAUT, Conquest of the Great Northwest ( 1909); G. BRYCE, Remarkable History of the Hudson's Bay Company ( 1900); E. HEAwOOD, History of Geographical Discovery in the 17th and 18th Centuries ( 1912); and the bibliographies in the annual Review of Historical Publications relating to Canada issued by the University of Toronto.
For the history of Brazil, see bibliography to Chapter XVIII. To these may be added A. J. DE M. MORÃES' Brazil historico, etc., ( 1866-67); F. A. VARNHAGEN, Historia das Lutas com os Hollandezes no Brazil desde 1624-54 ( 1872) and his Historia general do Brazil, 2 vols., ( 1877). G. EDMUNDSON, "The Dutch in Western Guiana, and The Dutch on the Amazon and the Negro in the 17th Century" ( English Historical Review, 1901-03). See, also, L. DOMINGUEZ, Historia Argentina, 4 ed., ( 1870), and RODWAY, The West Indies and the Spanish Main ( 1896). For the Dutch in the East, add to the bibliography of Chapter XVII, J. E. TENNANT , Ceylon ( 1860); H. ST. JOHN'S The Indian Archipelago, 2 vols., ( 1853); and G. M. THEALL, History of South Africa, 5 vols., ( 1888); with C. P. LUCAS, Historical Geography of the British Colonies, 2 ed., ( 1905ff.).
For the history of art in the seventeenth century, see in addition to the general accounts, M. BELL, Rembrandt van Rijn and his Work ( 1899); A. ROSENBERG'S Rembrandt ( 1906) fully illustrated; BODE'S Rembrandt u. seine Zeitgenossen ; PILKINGTON'S Dictionary of Painters; with the two series (German and English) of Great Painters, now in progress.
For morals, see LECKY, History of Rationalism in Europe ( 1865), now somewhat antiquated and never very interesting. For literature in general and Molière in particular, see E. DESPOIS and P. MESNARD'S introduction to Molière's works and the edition of his works in Les Grandes Ecrivains de la France. See, also, P. LACROIX, Collection Molièresque and H. C. CHATFIELD-TAYLOR, Molière; A bibliography ( 1907) for Molière literature. See, also, the works of SAINTEBEUVE, SCHERER, and BRUNETIÉRE. For Pascal, see SAINTE-BEUVE'S Port Royal and E. BOUTROUX'S Life ( 1903). See, also, in general for this and following chapters, L. PETER DE JULLEVILLE (ed.), Histoire de la laNgue et de la littérature française ( 1896-1900).
For English literature in this period, see the Cambridge History of English Literature; D. MASSON, Life of Milton, 6 vols., ( 1859-80); H. J. C. GRIERSON , First Half of the 17th Century. For Calderon and Spanish literature, see H. BREYMANN'S Calderon Studien ( 1905); E. MARTINENCHE 'S La Comédie Espagnole en France de Hardy à Racine ( 1900) and F. PICATOSTE Y RODRIGUEZ'S Biografia de Don Pedro Calderon, etc., ( 1881).
For Hobbes, see especially the L. STEPHEN ( 1904) and C. G. ROBERTSON ( 1886) biographies. See, also, W. GRAHAM, English Political Philosophy from Hobbes to Maine ( 1899).
For the early history of newspapers, see FOX BOURNE, History of Newspapers, and especially J. B. WILLIAMS, Early History of English Journalism ( 1908).
For the history of science in the seventeenth century, besides the general works on the subject, see the Record of the Royal Society ( 1901); ELLIS, SPEDDING, and HEATH (eds.), Collected Works of Bacon ( 1870);
S. P. RIGAUD, Correspondence of Scientific Men of the 17th Century ( 1841); C. ADAM and P. TANNERY (eds.), Descartes, (Euvres ( 1897, etc.); PERTZ, GROTEFEND, and GERHARDT (eds.), Leibniz, Gesammelte Werke ( 1843, etc.); S. HORSLEY (ed.), Newton, Opera ( 1779-85); J. NAPIER , Collected Works ( 1839); Galileo's treatises, tr. H. CREW ( 1915).
For the biographies of the principal scientific men of the century, see SPEDDING'S Bacon ( 1861-74); HALDANE'S Descartes ( 1906); FAHIE'S Galileo ( 1903); BREITSCHWERT'S Kepler ( 1831); GUHRAUER'S Leibniz ( 1842-46); and SLOMAN'S Leibniz, Eng. tr., ( 1860); NAPIER'S Napier ( 1834); BREWSTER'S Newton ( 1855). There is a good brief bibliography of the subject in Cambridge Modern History, vol. v, p. 903 ff.
CHAPTER XXV - THE AGE OF LOUIS XIV. 1660-1678
For the reign of Louis XIV, its history, administration, foreign policy, and general relations, see O. AIRY'S little book The English Restoration and Louis XIV ( 1888); P. A. CHÉRUEL'S La Politique Extérieure de Louis au début de son Gouvernement Personnel ( 1890); S. DE GROVESTINS' Guillaume III et Louis XIV, 8 vols., ( 1868); O. KLOPP 'S Der Fall des Hauses Stuart, etc., 14 vols., ( 1875-88); F. F. CARLSSON 'S Geschichte Schwedens ( 1873-87); B. ERDMANNSDORFFER'S Deutsche Geschichte. . . 1648-1740; and especially LAVISSE, Histoire de France, as above ( 1901, etc), with the great series Receuil des Instructions données aux Ambassadeurs et Ministres de France depuis les traités de Westphalie, etc., ( 1884ff.); and E. BOUROEOIS, "Manuel historique de politique étrangère" ( 1901-06), and his Sources de l'histoire de France, 1610-1715, continuing H. HAUSER, see above, Chapter IV.
For his administration proper, see especially P. A. CHÉRUEL, Histoire de l'Administration Monarchique en France, etc., 2 vols., ( 1855); Comte de LUCAY, Les Secretaires d'Etat . . . jusqu' à la Mort de Louis XV ( 1881); the various contributions of A. BAREAU; and the bibliography of Colbert in LAVISSE. See, also, J. H. BRIDGES' France under Richelieu and Colbert ( 1866); A. J. SARGENT'S The Economic Policy of Colbert ( 1899); RAMBAUD'S Histoire de la Civilisation Française, 2 vols., ( 1885); A. J. GRANT, The French Monarchy, 1483-1789 ( 1900); and M. PHILIPPSON'S Das Zeitalter Ludwigs XIV ( 1879); also M. IMMICH'S Geschichte des Europäischen Staatensystems, 1660-1789 ( 1903, etc.).
For the Restoration period in England, besides the general histories mentioned above, see O. AIRY, Charles II ( 1901); G. B. HERZ, English Public Opinion after the Restoration ( 1902); D. MASSON, Life of Milton, 6 vols., ( 1859-94). For the rise of English political parties, see TRENT, Early History of the Tory Party; G. W. COOKE, History of Party, 3 vols., ( 1836-37).
For English colonial policy, see J. R. SEELEY, The Expansion of England ( 1891), and his Growth of English Policy ( 1895); S. J. FUCHS, Die Handelspolitik Englands u. seiner Kolonien ( 1893); O. M. DICKERSON , American Colonial Government, 1696-1765; A. TODD, "ParliamentaryGovernment in the British Colonies"
Government in the British Colonies; and especially OSGOOD, The American Colonies in the 17th Century, 3 vols., ( 1904-07).
CHAPTER XXVI EUROPE BEYOND THE SEA. 1660-1678.
For the activities of France in North America during this period, see the works of PARKMAN, and WINSOR, quoted above. For Colbert's policy, see P. CLÉMENT, Histoire de Colbert et de son administration ( 1874); E. RAMEAU, Une eolonie féodale en Amerique, L'Acadie ( 1877); L. PAULLIAT, Louis XIV et la Compagnie des Indes Orientales de 1664 ( 1886); S. L. MIMS, Colbert's West Indian Policy ( 1914). See, also, KINGSFORD, History of Canada, 10 vols., ( 1887-98); and MILES, History of Canada under the French Régime ( 1872); with GAYARRÉ, Louisiana under French Dominion, 4 vols., new ed., ( 1904), and A. FORTIER , History of Louisiana, 6 vols., ( 1904).
For French explorers, see PARKMAN'S La Salle ( 1869); WINSOR, From Cartier to Frontenac ( 1894); R. G. THWAITES (ed.), Jesuit Relations ( 1896ff.); PARKMAN, Frontenac and New France under Louis XIV ( 1877).
For Africa and the East, see G. M. THEAL, History of South Africa under the Dutch East India Company, 2 vols., ( 1897); W. W. HUNTER, History of British India, 2 vols., ( 1899-90); A. LYALL, The British Dominion in India ( 1906); G. B. MALLESON, The French in India ( 1893); see, also, G. BIRDWOOD, Report on the Old Records of the India Office ( 1891); and C. R. WILSON, Early Annals of the English in Bengal, 2 vols., ( 1895-1900).
CHAPTER XXVII - THE AGE OF WILLIAM III. 1678-1702
The chief source for the history of the house of Orange is GROEN VAN PRINSTERER , Archives ou Correspondance inédite de la Maison d'OrangeNassau, 2e série, 5 vols., ( 1857-60); J. W. VAN SYPESTEIN, Geschiedkundige Bijdragen en onuitgeven Stukken, 3 vols., ( 1864-65); the Dumont collection as above; F. A. M. MIGNET, Négociations relatives la Succession d'Espagne, 4 vols., 5 ed., ( 1885). See especially A. LEORELLE , La Diplomatie Française et la Succession d'Espagne, 4 vols., ( 1888-92), and his Notes et Documents sur la Paix de Ryswick ( 1894).
For the English side, the best work is MACAULAY'S History of England, many editions. This may be checked by RANGE, History of England chiefly in the 17th Century ; KLOPP, Fall des Hauses Stuart, as above, and BROSCH, Gesehichte von England ( 1903). There are several sketches of the life of William III, the best being that in the Dictionary of National Biography, and the Life by H. D. TRAILL.
For the economic side, see A. ANDRÉADES, Histoire de la Banque d'Angleterre ( 1904); W. A. S. HEWINS, English Trade and Finance in the 17th Century ( 1892); J. E. T. ROGERS, First nine years of the Bank of England ( 1903); G. SCHMOLLER, The Mercantile System, etc., (tr. 1906); W. A. SHAW, History of Currency ( 1896); S. DOWELL, History of Taxation ( 1888).
For the military and naval side, see A. T. MAHAN, Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783 ( 1889); C. E. CALLWELL, Military Operations and Maritime Preponderance ( 1905); J. W. FORTESCUE, History of the British Army ( 1899); W. F. LOAD, England and France in the Mediterranean ( 1901); E. MACARTNEY-FILGATE, The War of William 111 in Ireland ( 1905); BAGWELL, History of Ireland; LEORELLE, Louis XIV et Strassbourg; ROY, Turenne; GRIFFET, Recueil de Lettres pour servir à l'Histoire Militaire de Louis XIV ; and SIRTEMA DE GROVESTINS, Histoire des Luttes et Rivalités Politiques entre les Puissances Maritimes et la France durant la Seconde Moitié du xvii Siècle ( 1855); MALLESON, Eugene of Savoy.
For the Peace of Ryswick and the Spanish negotiations, see also, A. GAEDEKE Die Politik Oesterreichs in der Spanischen Erbfolgefrage, 2 vols., ( 1877). For the social side, see C. HUGON, Social France in the 17th Century ( 1911), and E. LEVASSEUR, Histoire des classes ouvrières et de l'Industrie en France avant 1789 ( 1901).
For the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, see BAIRD, Revocation of the Edict of Nantes ( 1895); POOLE, The Huguenots of the Dispersion; SMILES, Huguenots in France after the Dispersion.
For the Revolution of 1688, see, beside MACAULAY, MACKINTOSH, History of the Revolution in England in 1688 ( 1834); HALLAM, Constitutional History of England ( 1879); AGNEW, Life of Henri de Ruvigny ( 1864), and his Exiles from France, 2 vols., ( 1871).
For Austria and her relation to the other powers, see M. IMMICH, Europäisches Staatensystem; and KLOPP, Der Fall des Hauses Stuart, as above H. VON SYBEL, Prinz Eugeu von Savoyen ( 1889); F. VON KRONES , Zur Gesehiehte Ungarns ( 1894); W. COXE, History of the House of Austria ( 1798). For Poland, see P. DUPONT, Mémoires pour servir à l'Histoire de Sobieski ( 1885), and the general histories of Poland. H. E. MALDEN'S Vienna 1683 ( 1883) is an account of the defeat of the Turks by Sobieski. A. F. PRIBRAM'S Franz Paul, Freiherr von Lisola ( 1894) contains a good sketch of the politics of this period.
G. FINLAY'S History of Greece 146 B.C. to 1864 A.D. ( 1877), includes one volume on Greece under Turkish domination with a good popular account of Turkish activities at this time. There is an older work in the "Gesehichte der Europäischen Staaten" by J. W. ZINKEISEN, namely, Die Geschichte des Osmanischen Retches in Europa, 7 vols. ( 1840-63).
For the buccaneers, see EXQUEMELING and HARING, as above; J. BURNEY , Buccaneers ( 1816); and for the South American states, see R. G. WATSON , Spanish and Portuguese South America during the Colonial Period ( 1884); J. PFOTENHAUER, Die Missionen der Jesuiten in Paraguay ( 1891-93); and the various essays in WINSOR, Narrative and Critical History.
For the English colonial policy, see H. E. EGERTON, History of Colonial Policy ( 1898); A. SMITH, Wealth of Nations, ed., ROGERS ( 1865), and the works quoted under Chapter XVIII; see, also, the writings of G. L. BEER, quoted in bibliographies to Chapter XXIII above and Chapter XXXV below.
For the history of New England, see PALFREY, History of New England ( 1859-90).
For the East India Company, see the bibliography of Chapter XII; MAINWARING, Crown and Company ( 1911); and PAPILLON, Memoir of Thomas Papillon ( 1887).
For Paterson see J. S. BARBOUR, A History of William Paterson and the Darien Company ( 1907); and S. BANNISTER, Life of W. Paterson, 3 vols., ( 1859); and for the Bank of England, see the bibliography of Chapter XXVII. For insurance, see MARTIN, History of Lloyd's ( 1876).
CHAPTER XXVlII - EUROPE AT THE END OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
For the development of French literature, see the bibliography of Chapter XXIV; H. TAINE, La Fontaine et ses Fables, 14 ed., ( 1898); E. FAGUET, Etudes Littéraires: Dix-septième Siècle, 10 ed., ( 1892); E. PICOT , Bibliographie Cornélienne ( 1876); and the works of F. BRUNETIÉRE and C. A. SAINTE-BEUVE, who have treated most of the subjects here touched upon in separate essays and monographs, chiefly critical. For England, see A. BELJAME, Le public et les Hommes de Lettres en Angleterre, 1660-1714; E. GOSSE, Seventeenth Century Studies, 3 ed., ( 1898); A. W. WARD, History of Dramatic Literature to the Death of Queen Anne, 3 vols., ( 1899). For Milton, see MASSON'S Life as quoted above.
For medicine, see in addition to the general histories, J. F. PAYNE'S Life of Sydenkam ( 1900) and the Life by PICARD ( 1889). For chemistry, T. E. THORPE'S Essays in Historical Chemistry ( 1902). For military science, see T. A. DODGE'S Gustavus Adolphus, 2 vols., ( 1896); Viscount WOLSELEY'S Marlborough ( 1894); J. ROY Turenne ( 1884); C. F. M. ROUSSET'S Louvois ( 1862-68); and G. MICHEL'S Vauban ( 1878); CAMPORI'S Montecuccoli ( 1876); and for Prince Eugene, the biographies by v. ARNETH ( 1864), V. SYBEL ( 1868) and MALLESON; with the biographies of Cromwell quoted in Chapter XXIII. For mathematics and astronomy, see NEWTON and LEIBNITZ as below. For Boyle, see the old work of BIRCH ( 1744), the essays by RAMSAY and by THORPE as above, Chapter XXI. The works of HUYGHENS are now in the process of publication. Halley lacks a biographer.
For Spinoza, see F. POLLOCK, Spinoza, His Life and Philosophy ( 1880); MARTINEAU, Study of Spinoza ( 1882); and J. CAIRO, Spinoza ( 1888); with the studies of Spinoza's Ethics by JOACHIM ( 1901) and DUFF ( 1903). For Newton, see S. P. RIGAUD, as above. G. J. GRAY, Bibliography of Newton's Writings ( 1880); A. DE MORGAN, Life of Newton ( 1885); and the older book of D. BREWSTER on Newton's Life, Writings and Discoveries ( 1855). For Leibnitz, see the biographies by BRAIG ( 1907), the exhaustive work of GUHRAUER ( 1842), and its English adaptation by MACKIE ( 1845). For his philosophy, see FISCHER, Leibniz ( 1889); E. CASSIRER, Leibniz System, etc., ( 1902); KABITZ ( 1909), and RUSSELL ( 1900) on his system.
For Pufendorf, see the contributions of TREITSCHKE, BLUNTSCHLI, and ROSCHER, and the article in the Allegemeine Deutsche Biographie. For Locke, see FOWLER ( 1880); FRAZER ( 1890); and especially H. R. FOX- BOURNE 'S Life ( 1876).
For clubs and club life, see J. TIMB'S volumes on that subject ( 1866) and ( 1872). For economic writing and thought, see PALORAVE'S Dictionary of Political Economy as quoted above; S. BUXTON'S Finance and Politics ( 1888); C. DUGUID'S History of the Stock Exchange ( 1901).
THE WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION AND THE REORGANIZATION OF EUROPE. 1700-1720
For the English side of the War of the Spanish Succession, see STANHOPE'S History of England in the Reign of Queen Anne ( 1870) and his History of the War of the Succession in Spain ( 1832). For the French side, see especially LAVISSE, Histoire de France, as above. For Austria, see A. GAEDEKE, Die Politik Oesterreichs in dee Spanischen Erbfolgefrage ( 1877). For Holland, see BLOK, History of the People of the Netherlands. For the war in Spain, see the biographies of Peterborough by F. RUSSELL ( 1887), and W. STERBING; and the bibliography of the preceding chapter. See, also, MALLESON, Prince Eugene of Savoy ( 1888) and WILSON, The Duke of Berwick. For the Peace of Utrecht see the works on that subject by C. GIRAUD ( 1847), GERARD, and WEBER.
For the Northern War, see R. N. BAIN, Charles XII and the Collapse of the Swedish Empire ( 1895); OSCAR II, King of Sweden, Charles XII, Eng. tr. by APGEORGE ( 1879); VOLTAIRE, Charles XII; HOLLAND, The Treaty Relations of Russia and Turkey. For the Prussian side of the war, see TUTTLE, History of Prussia; for the Russian, E. SCHUYLER, Peter the Great ( 1884); R. N. BAIN, The first Romanovs ( 1905) and The Pupils of Peter the Great ( 1897); K. WALISZEWSKI, Pierre le Grand ( 1897)--also in English.
For colonial affairs, see, in addition to the works quoted in the bibliographies of Chapters XVIII, XXIV, and XXVI, P. EDGAR, The Struggle for a Continent ( 1902).
CHAPTER XXX - IMPERIAL EUROPE. 1720-1742
For Spain in this period, see E. ARMSTRONG, Elizabeth Farnese ( 1892); P. BLIARD, Dubois ( 1901); for England, A. W. WARD, The Electress Sophia and the Hanoverian Succession, 2 ed., ( 1909); STANHOPE (Lord Mahon) , The History of England . . . 1713-83, in many editions; W. MICHAEL, Geschiehte Englands; E. S. ROSCOE, Harley ( 1902); the biographies of Walpole by J. MORLEY ( 1889) and A. C. EWaLO ( 1878); W. COXE, Memoirs of the Kings of Spain of the House of Bourbon 1813-15; H. CARRÉ, La France sous Louis XV ( 1891); J. B. PERKINS , France under the Regency ( 1892 ); and E. BUORGEOIS, Alberoni, Madame des Ursins et la Reine Elisabeth Farnese ( 1891), are useful and generally interesting books on this period. See, also, bibliography of Chapter XXVIII.
For India, see E. S. HOLDEN, The Mogul Emperors of Hindustan ( 1895); J. G. DUFF, A History of the Mahrattas, 3 vols., ( 1826); H. G. KEENE , The Moghul Empire ( 1866) and The Fall of the Moghul Empire ( 1876); S. J. OWEN, India on the Eve of the British Conquest ( 1872); and S. L. POOLE, Aurangzib ( 1896).
For the North American colonies, see especially E. CHANNING, History of the United States ( 1910, etc.,) the best scholarly account of this period, superseding BANCROFT. See, also, W. E. H. LECKY, History of England in the 18th Century ( 1878-90) and the bibliographies in the American Nation series. J. FISKE, New France and New England ( 1902); Colonization of the New World and Independence of the New World; PARKMAN, A Half Century of Conflict ( 1892); and F. X. GARNEAU , Histoire de Canada, 5 ed., ( 1913). For the Darien Company, see Paterson, as above. For the history of Uruguay, see the volume published under that title, Liverpool, 1897. For Mexico, see H. H. BANCROFT, as above; A. VON HUMBOLDT, Essay on New Spain; N. LEON, Compendio de la historia general de Mexico ( 1902). See, also, the brief and popular sketches by Nutt, which are, however, very scanty on this period.
For Louisiana, see FORTIER and GAYARRÉ as above, and the popular book of G. KING on New Orleans ( 1895). For John Law and his ventures, see A. THIERS' Law et son Système de Finances (tr., 1859); and A. M. DAVIS, Law's System ( 1887); also A. W. WINSTON-GLYNN, John Law of Lauriston ( 1908). See, also, BONNASIEUX, Les Grandes Compagnies, as above.
For the explorers, see HEAWOOD, Geographical Discovery in the 17th and 18th Centuries. For the reorganization of the Spanish colonial empire and the effect of the accession of the Bourbons, see R. ALTAMIRA Y CREVEA , Historia de España ( 1909); M. A. COURCY, L'Espagne après la Paix d'Utrecht ( 1891); and G. SCELLE, La Traité Negrière aux Indes de Castille ( 1906, etc.).
For the War of the Polish Succession, see R. N. BAIN, The Pupils of Peter the Great ( 1897); and the histories of England, France, and Russia; and for the Anglo-Spanish War, see the history of Spain and those of England and the colonies, as quoted above. For the biography of Anson, see J. BARROW'S Life ( 1839).
CHAPTER XXXI - RELIGION, INTELLECT, AND INDUSTRY. 1700-1750
For the development of French art in the eighteenth century, see the biographies of Watteau by P. MANTZ ( 1892), G. DARGENTY ( 1891), and PHILLIPS ( 1895-1905), and in particular, the study by C. MAUCLAIR ( 1905) and P. G. HAMPERTON'S volumes on painting. For the Jansenists, see SAINTE-BEUVE, Port Royal, 7 vols., 5 ed., ( 1888-91) and C. BEARD, Port Royal ( 1861). See, also, REBELLIAU, Bossuet ( 1900); Mrs. S. LEAR , Bossuet ( 1874), and a Bossuet bibliography by C. URBAIN ( 1900). For Boileau and the literature of his time, see the writings of SAlNTE-BEUVE and BRUNETIÈRE; for Pope, see J. W. CROKER (introduction, notes, and life by ELWIN and COURTHOPE), Works with Life, etc., 10 vols., ( 1871-98). For the Moravians see HUTTON, History of the Moravian Church ( 1909). For the Methodists, see TOWNSEND, WORKMAN, and EAYRS, New History of Methodism ( 1909). For the Wesleys, see G. J. STEVENSON, Memorials of the Wesley Family ( 1876), and JOHN WESLEY'S Journal, ed., CURNOCK ( 1909-13). See, also, R. A. VAUGHAN , Hours with the Mystics, 2 vols., 7 ed., ( 1895); and S. RITSCHL , Geschichte des Pietismus ( 1880-1906); J. H. OVERTON, William Law ( 1881); and R. M. JONES, The Spiritual Reformers.
For Voltaire, see the bibliography by G. BENGESCO, 4 vols., ( 188290); the essay by T. CARLYLE in his works; the essay by J. MORLEY ( 1872); and the Life by J. PARTON ( 1881). For Swift, Addison, and Steele, see their biographies, especially in the English Men of Letters series. For the progress of scholarship, see SANDYS as above; A. MAU, Pompeii, tr. by F. W. KELSEY, 2 ed., ( 1902); and FUETER, Geschichte der neueren Historiographie ( 1911); also in French translation revised.
CHAPTER XXXII - THE AGE OF FREDERICK THE GREAT. 1742-1763 For the development of Brandenburg- Prussia, see L. YON RANKE, Zwölf Bücher Preussischer Geschichte ( 1878-79) and E. LAVISSE, "Études sur l'Histoire de Prusse" ( 1879) and La Jeunesse du Grand Frederic. The most exhaustive Life of Frederick the Great in English is that by T. CARLYLE, many editions. See, also, H. TUTTLE, History of Prussia 1740-56 ( 1888); LECKY, History of England in the 18th Century ( 1878); MAHON, History of England 1713-1783 ( 1858); A. ARNETH, Maria Theresa ( 1868-75); A. W. WARD, England and Hanover ( 1899); R. KOSER, Friedrich der Grosse ( 1905). See, also, A. BACHMAN, Die Pragmatische Sanction, etc. ( 1894). For the French side see Comte de PAJOL , Les Guerres sous Louis XV ( 1881-87). There is a good brief sketch of this subject by MARRIOTT and ROBERTSON, The Rise o! Prussia ( 1916).
These works cover in the main the general history of the Wars of the Austrian Succession as well.
For the colonies and India, see the bibliographies of the preceding chapters. For the Seven Years' War, R. WADDINGTON, La Guerre de Sept Ans ( 1899-1907). See, also, his Louis XV et le Renversement des Alliances ( 1896), for the Diplomatic Revolution. See, also, for the English side, J. CORBETT, England in the Seven Years' War ( 1908), and L. RANKIN, The Marquis d'Argenson ( 1901).
For Pitt, see the biographies by GREEN ( 1902); RUVILLE, Eng. tr., ( 1905); and B. WILLIAMS ( 1913).
CHAPTER XXXIII - THE AGE OF VOLTAIRE AND THE PHILOSOPHERS
For the general subject of the rise of liberal thought, see F. ROCQUAIN , L'Esprit Révolutionnaire avant la Révolution, Eng. tr., ( 1878). For Voltaire and Rousseau, see J. MORLEY'S Essays. For a bibliography of Montesquieu, see L. DANGEAU ( 1874); for his Life, see L. VIAN ( 1879) and A. SOREL. For Voltaire, see bibliography of Chapter XXXI. For Rousseau, see the latest attempt to rehabilitate him by Mrs. F. MACDONALD ( 1906); and for Diderot, see MORLEY'S Essay, and the accounts of him by SCHERER, FAGUET, and BRUNETIÈRE. For Buffon, see HUMBERT BAZlLE, Buffon, sa Famille, etc., ( 1863). For the Physiocrats, see H. HIGGS, The Physiocrats ( 1897). C. E. VAUGHANS, Political Writings of J. J. Rousseau, Cambridge, 1915. 2 vols.
For china manufacture see BURTON, Porcelain ( 1906); and the bibliography in the Crerar Library List of Books on the History of Industry, etc., ( 1915). For the Agricultural Revolution, see TRAILL'S Social England as above and the bibliography there. See, also, R. E. PROTHERO 'S Pioneers and Progress of English Farming ( 1888), and J. E. T. ROGERS ' History of Agriculture and Prices in England ( 1866-1892). For exploration, see WINSOR and HEAWOOO as above. For the American colonies, see books noted in bibliography of Chapter XXX, and earlier. J. S. BASSETT, Short History of the United States ( 1913) has a good brief account of this period with book-list. See, also, A. L. CROSS, History of England, etc., ( 1914). See especially C. L. BICKER, The American Colonies ( 1915) for a general survey of colonial conditions before the Revolution. G. O. TREVELYAN, American Revolution ( 18991912) contains much interesting material for the colonies as well as for England.
For Berkeley, see L. STEPHEN, English Thought in the 18th Century, 3 ed., ( 1902); and A. C. FRASER'S edition of Berkeley's Works, including a Biography, 4 vols., ( 1901). For Edwards, see A. V. G. ALLEN, Jonathan Edwards ( 1889).
CHAPTER XXXIV - THE EUROPEAN EMPIRE
For the enlightened despots, see A. SOREL, L'Europe et la Révolution française, vol. i, ( 1885); and the antiquated, unscholarly, but still interesting work of F. C. SCHLOSSER, History of Europe in the 18th Century, Eng. tr., ( 1843-52); and especially A. H. JOHNSON, The Age of the Enlightened Despots ( 1910).
For the partition of Poland, see A. SOREL, La Question d'Orient au XVlllième Siècle, 3 ed., ( 1902). For Poland in the eighteenth century, see introduction to R. H. LORD, The Second Partition of Poland.
For the suppression of the Jesuits, see J. A. M. CRETNEAU-JOLY, "Clement XlV et les Jésuiites" ( 1847), and his Histoire . . . de la Compagnie de Jésus, 6 vols.. ( 1844). See, also, SAINT-PRIEST, Histoire de la chute des Jésuites ( 1844). For Pombal, see J. SMITH Memoirs of the Marquess of Pombal. 2 vols, ( 1843); J. P. OLIVEIRA MARTINS' Historia de Portugal, 2 vols., ( 1901). For Paoli, see J. BOSWELL'S contemporary account ( 1768), and BARTOLI'S Biography ( 1891). For Choiseul, see F. CALMETTE, Mémoires de Duc de Choiseul ( 1904). For Spain and Portugal and their colonies, see F. ROUSSEAU, Règne de Charles III d'Espagne. 2 vols., ( 1907); Lafuente, as above; P. R. M. GALANTI , Historia do Brazil, 4 vols., ( 1905); R. SOUTHEY, History of Brazil ( 1810).
For the situation of Great Britain and the colonies, see the various references in bibliography of the preceding chapters.
CHAPTER XXXV - THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION. 1768-1783
For the American Revolution in general, see the bibliographies of the preceding chapters. See, also, for England's colonial policy, G. L. BEER, Commercial Policy of England towards the American Colonies ( 1893), his Old Colonial System, 2 vols., ( 1912), and especially his British Colonial Policy, 1756-1765 ( 1907). The writings of the American leaders have all been edited and published in critical editions, and their lives have often been written. Of the latter the most accessible volumes are those in the American Statesmen series. See, also, the histories of England by MAHON and LECKY; the biographies of Pitt as quoted above; the Life of North by R. LUCAS ( 1913); and the biographies of Fox and Burke.
For the Revolution itself the best scholarly account is that of E. CHANNING in vol. iii of his History of the United States; the most entertaining is that of G. O. TREVELYAN, as above; the best account from another point of view, that of the loyalists, is that of S. G. FISHER, The Struggle for American Independence, 2 vols., ( 1908). See, also, M. C. TYLER, Literary History of the American Revolution, 2 vols., ( 1897); and HUNT, The Provincial Committees of Safety of the American Revolution ( 1904).
CHAPTER XXXVI - THE EUROPEAN REVOLUTION. 1768-1789
For the development of pastel and water-color painting in the eighteenth century, see "K. ROBERT, Le Pastel ( 1890) and W. L. WYLIE , J. M. W. Turner ( 1905). For furniture, see P. MACQUOID, English Furniture ( 1905), and Lady DILKE'S French Furniture of the 18th Century.
For German literature in this period, see the Brockhaus series, Bibliothek der Deutschen National-literatur des 18 u. 19 Jahrhunderts, 44 vols., ( 1868-91); J. SCHMIDT, Geschichte der deutschen Literatur yon Leibniz bis auf unsere Zeit, 4 vols., 2 ed., ( 1886-90). For Schiller, see T. CARLYLE, Life of Schiller, many editions; for Goethe, see A. BIELSCHOWSKY 'S Biography (tr., 1905, etc.), and H. G. ATKINS' volume ( 1904). The chief collection is the "Weimar Edition" now nearly completed. For Kant, see the bibliographies by ADICKES ( 1892, etc.), and REICKE ( 1895). See, also, C. VORLANDER'S Kant, Schiller, Goethe ( 1907); and A. WEIR, Student's Introduction to Critical Philosophy ( 1906).
For French literature, see SAINTE-BEUVE and BRUNETIERE as above. For English literature, see the Cambridge History of English Literature and its bibliographies. For Gibbon, see his autobiography, many editions; S. WALPOLE, Works, and W. BAGEHOT, Works, for essays; and the edition of the History by J. B. BURY ( 1896-1900). For Adam Smith, see J. RAE, Life of Adam Smith ( 1895) and the various editions of the Wealth of Nations. For Bentham, see L. STEPHENS, The English Utilitarians ( 1900) and C. M. ATKINSON, Jeremy Bentham ( 1905). For the Industrial Revolution, see A. TOYNBEE, The Industrial Revolution (in several editions); HAMMOND, The Town Laborer ( 1917); the histories of the cotton manufacture in England, by BAINES ( 1835) and URE; S. SMILES, Lives of the Engineers ( 1861-62). W. CUNNINHAM , Growth of English Industry and Commerce ( 1903). For Watt, and the steam engine, see J. P. MUIRHEAD, Origin and Progress of the Mechanical Inventions of James Watt, 3 vols., ( 1854), and his Life of Watt ( 1858).
For the early history of Australia see E JENKS' Australasia and A. KITSON 'S Captain James Cook ( 1907).
For Joseph II, see the works of A. ARNETH; and T. F. BRIGHT, Joseph II ( 1897). For Catherine II, see K. WALISZEWSKI Le Roman d'une Irapératrice ( 1893); for Frederick II, see R. KOSER, König Friedrich der Grosse, 3 ed., ( 1905).
For the United States, see the various histories of SCHOULER, CHANNING, BASSETT, etc. For the formation of the Constitution, see ELLIOT, Debates ( 1836), revised and enlarged by M. FARRAND ( 1911); C. BEARD, Economic Basis of the Constitution ( 1914). See, also, the Writings of Madison, ed., HUNT; BRYCE, American Commonwealth ( 1911); JAMESON, Studies in the History of the Federal Convention, in American Historical Association Reports ( 1902); the biographies of the American statesmen; J. FISKE, Critical Period ( 1888).
For the beginning of the French Revolution, see ROCQUAIN as above; LOWELL, Eve of the French Revolution; the brief survey of the early years, by S. MATHEWS ( 1912); the excellent volumes of H. MORSE STEPHENS , The French Revolution ( 1886-91); A. AULARD, History of the French Revolution, Eng. tr., B. MIALL ( 1910)--especially good for the revolutionary spirit and the rise of the idea of liberty; and the older, brilliant, but now somewhat discredited, volumes of H. A. TAINE, The Ancient Régime and The French Revolution, Eng. tr., several editions. The most recent popular history of the Revolution is that of L. MADELIN. The bibliographies in the Cambridge Modern History, and those in LAVISSE, will serve as a general introduction. There is also a printed catalogue of the works on that subject in the Cornell University Library; and a brief survey of the source literature, by G. F. BARWICK, in the Historians' History of the World, vol. xii. See, also, Lord ACTION 'S Lectures on the French Revolution for interesting side-lights on the subject; and P. CARON, Manuel de la Révolution française ( 1912) for an introduction to the sources.
Abelard, at Paris, I. 36
d'Abreu, Antonio, in Spice Islands, I. 169
Absolutism, rise of, 15th century, I. 82 -108; 15-16th century, 124 ff.; and internationalism, 141 ; failure in Germany, 203 ; and middle classes, 16th century, 280 ; 16-17th century, 501 -2; ( 1660-78), II. 66 ; 98 ; reaction against, 17th century, 130 ; ( Louis XIV), 310 -74, passim; see also Despotism
Abyssinia, Christian state, connection with Prester John legend, I. 72 ; reached by Covilham and Paiva, 95 ; joins Portuguese against Egypt, 237 ; Lobo in, II. 31
Academies, the, and the New Learning, I. 54
Academy, Berlin, II. 227 ; Stockholm, 227 ; French, see Colbert
Academy, French, see Colbert, II. 76
Acadia, I. 443 ; secured by France, II. 57 ; taken by English, 251
Achin, Portuguese and, I. 236
Acta Sanctorum, II. 48
Act of Supremacy, English ( Henry VIII), I. 210 ; ( Elizabeth), 281, 301
Act of Uniformity ( Elizabeth), I. 281, 301
Act of Union, England and Scotland, II. 158
Adam, Robert and William, II. 335 -6
Adams, Samuel, II. 311, 314
Adams, William, I. 396
Addison, Joseph, II. 220
Adelard of Bath, mediæval traveler, I. 69
Aden, port on trade-route, I. 73 ; Portuguese at, 156, 160
Administrative reform ( 1760-89), II. 361
Adolf of Nassau, captures Mainz, I. 53
Æneas Sylvius Piccolomini ( Pius II), I. 56
Æschines, MS. of, I. 52
Æschylus, Laurentian MS. of, I. 52
Africa, east coast, Covilham on, I. 95 ; da Gama on, 103
Africa, North, I. 85
Africa, west coast, early explorations, I. 88 ; early Portuguese ventures on, 85, 89, 96 ; map, 89
African Company, French, II. 80 ; English Royal, 85 -6
Agincourt, Battle of, I. 84, 110, 188
Agricola, G. (Landmann), "father of mineralogy," I. 250
Agricola, R. (Huysmann), Dutch scholar, I. 180
Agricultural periodicals, origin, II. 271
Agricultural Revolution, the, II. 271 ; 346 -7
Agricultural societies, beginnings of, II. 271
d'Ailly, Cardinal Pierre, I. 60
Air-guns, invention of, I. 259
Aix-la-Chapelle, Treaty of, II. 58, 240 ; peace, 245, 248, 248 -50, 262
Akbar the Great, Mogul Emperor, I. 351 ; II. 181
Alais, Peace of, I. 429
Alarçon, Hernando de, discovers Colorado River, I. 232
Alaska, occupied by Russians, II. 194
Albany (Fort Orange), founded, I. 451
Albany Congress, the, II. 250 -1
Albemarle district, colonized, II. 27
Albigensians, crusade against, I. 188
Albuquerque, Affonso da, life and policy, I. 156 -7, 159, 163 -4, 173
Alcaldes, in Spanish America, I. 234
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